Silberberg 4/e Chapter 3 Preview

Silber4 3.001a.EOCP.
The atomic mass of Cl is 35.45 amu. What is the mass in grams of 3 mol of Cl atoms?



Silber4 3.001b.EOCP.
The atomic mass of Al is 26.98 amu. What is the mass in grams of 2 mol of Al atoms?



Silber4 3.002a.EOCP.
How many moles of C atoms are in 1 mol of sucrose (C12H22O11)?



Silber4 3.002b.EOCP.
How many C atoms are in 1 mol of sucrose (C12H22O11)?



Silber4 3.003.AP. ,
Why might the expression "1 mole of nitrogen" be confusing?
Key: "1 mole of nitrogen" could be interpreted as a mole of nitrogen atoms or a mole of nitrogen molecules.

What change would remove any uncertainty?
Key: Specify a mole of nitrogen atoms or a mole of nitrogen molecules to avoid confusion.

For what other elements might a similar confusion exist? (Select all that apply.)


Why?
Key: The same problem is possible with other diatomic or polyatomic molecules, e.g., Cl2, Br2, S8, P4.



Silber4 3.003.EOCP.
"One mole of nitrogen" can be interpreted as one mole of nitrogen atoms or one mole of nitrogen molecules.



Silber4 3.004.EOCP.
Which is true for molecular mass and/or molar mass?



Silber4 3.005.EOCP.
Which is not true about the mole?



Silber4 3.007.AP.
Each of the following balances weighs the indicated numbers of atoms of two elements. Each part (a), (b), etc below refers to the corresponding balance.

(a) Which element has the lower molar mass?

(b) Which element has fewer atoms per gram?

(c) Which element has fewer atoms per gram?

(d) Which element has more atoms per mole?



Silber4 3.007a.EOCP.
Each of the balances below weighs the indicated numbers of atoms of two elements.

On Scale (a) which element has the higher molar mass?



Silber4 3.007b.EOCP.
Each of the balances below weighs the indicated numbers of atoms of two elements.

On Scale (b) which element has more atoms per gram?



Silber4 3.007c.EOCP.
Each of the balances below weighs the indicated numbers of atoms of two elements.

On Scale (c) which element has fewer atoms per gram?



Silber4 3.007d.EOCP.
Each of the balances below weighs the indicated numbers of atoms of two elements.

On Scale (d) which element has fewer atoms per gram?



Silber4 3.008.AP.
Calculate the molar mass of each of the following.
(a) SO2
[64.1] g/mol
(b) N2O
[44] g/mol
(c) K2S
[110] g/mol
(d) C6H12O6
[180] g/mol



Silber4 3.008a.EOCP.
Calculate the molar mass of the compound:
Sr(OH)2



Silber4 3.008b.EOCP.
Calculate the molar mass of the compound:
N2O



Silber4 3.008c.EOCP.
Calculate the molar mass of the compound:
NaClO3



Silber4 3.008d.EOCP.
Calculate the molar mass of the compound:
Cr2O3



Silber4 3.009.AP.
Calculate the molar mass of the following substances.
(a) K2C4H4O5
[210] g/mol
(b) P4O6
[220] g/mol
(c) CuSO4 5 H2O
[250] g/mol
(d) Na2HPO4
[142] g/mol



Silber4 3.009a.EOCP.
Calculate the molar mass of the compound:
(NH4)3PO4



Silber4 3.009b.EOCP.
Calculate the molar mass of the compound:
CH2Cl2



Silber4 3.009c.EOCP.
Calculate the molar mass of the compound:
CuSO4 5 H2



Silber4 3.009d.EOCP.
Calculate the molar mass of the compound:
BrF5



Silber4 3.010a.EOCP.
Calculate the molar mass of the compound:
SnO2



Silber4 3.010b.EOCP.
Calculate the molar mass of the compound:
BaF2



Silber4 3.010c.EOCP.
Calculate the molar mass of the compound:
Al2(SO4)3



Silber4 3.010d.EOCP.
Calculate the molar mass of the compound:
MnCl2



Silber4 3.011.AP.
Calculate the molar mass of each of the following.
(a) SrH2
[89.6] g/mol
(b) Fe(ClO4)3
[354] g/mol
(c) C7H8
[106] g/mol
(d) CuCl2 2 H2O
[170] g/mol



Silber4 3.011a.EOCP.
Calculate the molar mass of the compound:
N2O4



Silber4 3.011b.EOCP.
Calculate the molar mass of the compound:
C8H10



Silber4 3.011c.EOCP.
Calculate the molar mass of the compound:
MgSO4 7 H2O



Silber4 3.011d.EOCP.
Calculate the molar mass of the compound:
Ca(C2H3O2)2



Silber4 3.012.AP.
Calculate each of the following quantities.
(a) mass in grams of 0.67 mol KMnO4
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [110] g
(b) moles of O atoms in 7.56 g Mg(NO3)2
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [0.306] mol
(c) number of O atoms in 6.0 10-3 g CuSO4 5 H2O
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [1.3e+20] atoms



Silber4 3.012a.EOCP.
Calculate the mass in grams of 0.57 mol of KMnO4.



Silber4 3.012b.EOCP.
Calculate the moles of O atoms in 8.18 g of Mg(NO3)2.



Silber4 3.012c.EOCP.
Calculate the number of O atoms in 8.1 10-3 g of CuSO4 5 H2O.



Silber4 3.013.AP.
Calculate each of the following quantities.
(a) mass in kilograms of 3.4 1020 molecules of NO2
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [2.6e-05] kg
(b) moles of Cl atoms in 0.0535 g C2H4Cl2
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [0.00108] mol
(c) number of H - ions in 5.39 g SrH2
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [7.24e+22] ions



Silber4 3.013a.EOCP.
Calculate the mass in kilograms of 3.8 1020 molecules of NO2.



Silber4 3.013b.EOCP.
Calculate the moles of Cl atoms in 0.0425 g of C2H4Cl2.



Silber4 3.013c.EOCP.
Calculate the number of H- ions in 4.92 g of SrH2.



Silber4 3.014.AP.
Calculate each of the following quantities.
(a) mass in grams of 0.55 mol MnSO4
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [83] g
(b) moles of compound in 13.4 g Fe(ClO4)3
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [0.0378] mol
(c) number of N atoms in 80.5 g NH4NO2
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [1.52e+24] atoms



Silber4 3.014a.EOCP.
Calculate the mass in grams of 0.64 mol of MnSO4.



Silber4 3.014b.EOCP.
Calculate the moles of compound in 15.8 g of Fe(ClO4)3.



Silber4 3.014c.EOCP.
Calculate the number of N atoms in 92.6 g of NH4NO2.



Silber4 3.015.AP.
Calculate each of the following quantities.
(a) total number of ions in 28.7 g CaF2
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [6.64e+23] ions
(b) mass in milligrams of 2.18 mol CuCl2 2 H2O
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [3.72e+05] mg
(c) mass in kilograms of 3.44 1022 formula units of Bi(NO3)3 5 H2O
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [0.0277] kg



Silber4 3.015a.EOCP.
Calculate the total number of ions in 38.1 g of CaF2.



Silber4 3.015b.EOCP.
Calculate the mass in milligrams of 3.58 mol of CuCl2 2 H2O.



Silber4 3.015c.EOCP.
Calculate the mass in kilograms of 2.88 1022 formula units of Bi(NO3)3 5 H2O.



Silber4 3.016a.EOCP.
Calculate the mass in grams of 8.41 mol of copper(I) carbonate.



Silber4 3.016b.EOCP.
Calculate the mass in grams of 2.04 1021 molecules of dinitrogen pentaoxide.



Silber4 3.016c.EOCP.
Calculate the number of moles in 57.9 g of sodium perchlorate.



Silber4 3.016d.EOCP.
Calculate the number of formula units in 57.9 g of sodium perchlorate.



Silber4 3.016f.EOCP.
Calculate the number of perchlorate ions in 57.9 g of sodium perchlorate.



Silber4 3.016g.EOCP.
Calculate the number of Cl atoms in 57.9 g of sodium perchlorate.



Silber4 3.016h.EOCP.
Calculate the number of O atoms in 57.9 g of sodium perchlorate.



Silber4 3.017.AP.
Calculate each of the following quantities.
(a) mass in grams of 2.05 mol chromium(III) sulfate decahydrate
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [1170] g
(b) mass in grams of 9.46 1024 molecules of dichlorine heptaoxide
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [2870] g
(c) number of moles and formula units in 59.2 g lithium sulfate
moles
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [0.539] mol
formula units
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [3.24e+23] formula units
(d) number of lithium ions, sulfate ions, S atoms, and O atoms in the mass in part (c)
Li+ ions
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [6.49e+23] ions
SO42- ions
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [3.24e+23] ions
S atoms
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [3.24e+23] atoms
O atoms
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [1.30e+24] atoms



Silber4 3.017a.EOCP.
Calculate the mass in grams of 3.52 mol of chromium(III) sulfate decahydrate.



Silber4 3.017b.EOCP.
Calculate the mass in grams of 9.64 1024 molecules of dichlorine heptaoxide.



Silber4 3.017c.EOCP.
Calculate the number of moles in 56.2 g of lithium sulfate.



Silber4 3.017d.EOCP.
Calculate the number of formula units in 56.2 g of lithium sulfate.



Silber4 3.017e.EOCP.
Calculate the number of lithium ions in 56.2 g of lithium sulfate.



Silber4 3.017f.EOCP.
Calculate the number of sulfate ions in 56.2 g of lithium sulfate.



Silber4 3.017g.EOCP.
Calculate the number of S atoms in 56.2 g of lithium sulfate.



Silber4 3.017h.EOCP.
Calculate the number of O atoms in 56.2 g of lithium sulfate.



Silber4 3.018.AP.
Calculate each of the following.
(a) mass % of N in ammonium bicarbonate
[17.7]%
(b) mass % of H in sodium dihydrogen phosphate heptahydrate
[6.55]%



Silber4 3.018a.EOCP.
Calculate the mass % of H in ammonium bicarbonate.



Silber4 3.018b.EOCP.
Calculate the mass % of O in sodium dihydrogen phosphate heptahydrate.



Silber4 3.019a.EOCP.
Calculate the mass % of I in strontium periodate.



Silber4 3.019b.EOCP.
Calculate the mass % of Mn in potassium permanganate.



Silber4 3.020a.EOCP.
Calculate the mass fraction of C in cesium acetate.



Silber4 3.020b.EOCP.
Calculate the mass fraction of O in uranyl sulfate trihydrate (the formula for the uranyl ion is UO22+).



Silber4 3.021.AP.
Calculate each of the following.
(a) mass fraction of O in calcium perchlorate
[0.464]
(b) mass fraction of P in tetraphosphorus hexaoxide
[0.563]



Silber4 3.021a.EOCP.
Calculate the mass fraction of Cl in calcium chlorate.



Silber4 3.021b.EOCP.
Calculate the mass fraction of P in tetraphosphorus hexaoxide.



Silber4 3.022.AP. ,
Oxygen is required for metabolic combustion of foods. Calculate the number of atoms in 38.0 g oxygen gas, the amount absorbed from the lungs at rest in about 15 minutes.
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [1.43e+24] atoms


Silber4 3.022.EOCP.
Oxygen is required for the metabolic combustion of foods. Calculate the number of atoms in 38.0 g of oxygen gas, the amount absorbed from the lungs at rest in about 15 minutes.



Silber4 3.023.AP.
Cisplatin (below) is a powerful drug used in the treatment of certain cancers.

(a) Calculate the moles of compound in 275.1 g cisplatin.
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [0.9167] mol
(b) Calculate the number of hydrogen atoms in 0.96 mol cisplatin.
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [3.5e+24] atoms



Silber4 3.023a.EOCP.
Cisplatin (below), or Platinol, is a powerful drug used in the treatment of certain cancers.

Calculate the moles of compound in 285.3 g of cisplatin.



Silber4 3.023b.EOCP.
Cisplatin (below), or Platinol, is a powerful drug used in the treatment of certain cancers.

Calculate the number of hydrogen atoms in 0.98 mol of cisplatin.



Silber4 3.024.AP.
Allyl sulfide gives garlic its characteristic odor.

(a) Calculate the mass in grams of 1.63 mol allyl sulfide.
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [186] g
(b) Calculate the number of carbon atoms in 4.67 g allyl sulfide.
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [1.48e+23] atoms



Silber4 3.024a.EOCP.
Allyl sulfide (below) gives garlic its characteristic odor.

Calculate the mass in grams of 1.63 mol of allyl sulfide.



Silber4 3.025.AP.
Iron reacts slowly with oxygen and water to form a compound commonly called rust (Fe2O3 4 H2O).
(a) For 62.6 kg rust, calculate the moles of compound.
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [2.70e+02] mol
(b) Find the moles of Fe2O3.
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [2.70e+02] mol
(c) Determine the grams of iron.
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [30200] g



Silber4 3.025a.EOCP.
Iron reacts slowly with oxygen and water to form a compound commonly called rust (Fe2O3 4 H2O). Calculate the moles of Fe2O3 4 H2O in 65.2 kg of rust.



Silber4 3.025b.EOCP.
Iron reacts slowly with oxygen and water to form a compound commonly called rust (Fe2O3 4 H2O). Calculate the moles of Fe2O3 in 65.2 kg of rust.



Silber4 3.025c.EOCP.
Iron reacts slowly with oxygen and water to form a compound commonly called rust (Fe2O3 4 H2O). Calculate the grams of iron in 65.2 kg of rust.



Silber4 3.026.AP.
Propane (C3H8) is widely used in liquid form as a fuel for barbecue grills and camp stoves. For 67.7 g of propane, determine the following.
(a) Calculate the moles for of compound.
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [1.54] mol
(b) Calculate the grams of carbon.
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [55.3] g



Silber4 3.026a.EOCP.
Propane is widely used in liquid form as a fuel for barbecue grills and camp stoves. Calculate the moles of compound in 75.3 g of propane.



Silber4 3.026b.EOCP.
Propane is widely used in liquid form as a fuel for barbecue grills and camp stoves. Calculate the grams of carbon in 75.3 g of propane.



Silber4 3.027.EOCP.
The effectiveness of a nitrogen fertilizer is determined mainly by its mass % N. Which of the following fertilizers is most effective?



Silber4 3.028a.EOCP.
The mineral galena is composed of lead(II) sulfide and has an average density of 7.46 g/cm3. How many moles of lead(II) sulfide are in 1.00 ft3 of galena?



Silber4 3.028b.EOCP.
The mineral galena is composed of lead(II) sulfide and has an average density of 7.46 g/cm3. How many lead atoms are in 1.00 dm3 of galena?



Silber4 3.029.AP. ,
Hemoglobin, a protein found in red blood cells, carries O2 from the lungs to the body's cells. Iron (as ferrous ion, Fe2+) makes up 0.33 mass % of hemoglobin. If the molar mass of hemoglobin is 6.8 104 g/mol, how many Fe2+ ions are present in one molecule?
[4]


Silber4 3.029.EOCP.
Hemoglobin, a protein found in red blood cells, carries O2 from the lungs to the body's cells. Iron (as ferrous ion, Fe2+) makes up 0.33 mass % of hemoglobin. If the molar mass of hemoglobin is 6.8 104 g/mol, how many Fe2+ ions are present in one molecule?



Silber4 3.030.AP. ,
Select three ways compositional data may be given in a problem that involves finding an empirical formula.




Silber4 3.030.EOCP.
Which is not a way in which compositional data may be given in a problem to find an empirical formula?



Silber4 3.031.EOCP.
Which of the following sets of information does not allow you to obtain the molecular formula of a covalent compound?



Silber4 3.032.EOCP.
MgCl2 is a molecular formula for magnesium chloride.



Silber4 3.033a.EOCP.
Give the empirical formula for the compound below.
C2H4



Silber4 3.033b.EOCP.
Give the empirical formula for the compound below.
C2H6O2



Silber4 3.033c.EOCP.
Give the empirical formula for the compound below.
N2O5



Silber4 3.033d.EOCP.
Give the empirical formula for the compound below.
Ba3(PO4)2



Silber4 3.033e.EOCP.
Give the empirical formula for the compound below.
Te4I16



Silber4 3.034.AP.
What is the empirical formula and empirical formula mass for each of the following compounds? (Type your answer using the format CH4 for CH4.)
  empirical formula empirical formula mass
(a) P4O10 [P2O5]
[141.96] g/mol
(b) C4H8 [CH2]
[14.03] g/mol
(c) C3H6O3 [CH2O]
[30.03] g/mol
(d) S4N4 [SN]
[46.08] g/mol



Silber4 3.034a.EOCP.
Give the empirical formula for the compound below.
C4H8



Silber4 3.034b.EOCP.
Give the empirical formula for the compound below.
C3H6O3



Silber4 3.034c.EOCP.
Give the empirical formula for the compound below.
P4O10



Silber4 3.034d.EOCP.
Give the empirical formula for the compound below.
Ga2(SO4)3



Silber4 3.034e.EOCP.
Give the empirical formula for the compound below.
Al2Br6



Silber4 3.035.AP. ,
What is the molecular formula of each compound? (Type your answer using the format CO2 for CO2.)
(a) CH2 ( = 42.08 g/mol)
[C3H6]
(b) NH2 ( = 32.05 g/mol)
[N2H4]
(c) NO2 ( = 92.02 g/mol)
[N2O4]
(d) CHN ( = 135.14 g/mol)
[C5H5N5]



Silber4 3.035a.EOCP.
Give the molecular formula for the compound below.
empirical formula CH2 (molar mass = 42.08 g/mol)



Silber4 3.035b.EOCP.
Give the molecular formula for the compound below.
empirical formula NH2 (molar mass = 32.05 g/mol)



Silber4 3.035c.EOCP.
Give the molecular formula for the compound below.
empirical formula NO2 (molar mass = 92.02 g/mol)



Silber4 3.035d.EOCP.
Give the molecular formula for the compound below.
empirical formula CHN (molar mass = 135.14 g/mol)



Silber4 3.036.AP.
What is the molecular formula of each compound? (Type your answer using the format C6H12O6 for C6H12O6.)
(a) empirical formula CHCl ( = 84.93 g/mol)
[CH2Cl2]
(b) empirical formula CH2Cl ( = 98.95 g/mol)
[C2H4Cl2]
(c) empirical formula CH ( = 78.11 g/mol)
[C6H6]
(d) empirical formula C3H6O2 ( = 74.08 g/mol)
[C3H6O2]



Silber4 3.036a.EOCP.
Give the molecular formula for the compound below.
empirical formula CH (molar mass = 78.11 g/mol)



Silber4 3.036b.EOCP.
Give the molecular formula for the compound below.
empirical formula C3H6O2 (molar mass = 74.08 g/mol)



Silber4 3.036c.EOCP.
Give the molecular formula for the compound below.
empirical formula HgCl (molar mass = 472.1 g/mol)



Silber4 3.036d.EOCP.
Give the molecular formula for the compound below.
empirical formula C7H4O2 (molar mass = 240.20 g/mol)



Silber4 3.037.AP.
Determine the empirical formula of each of the following compounds. (Type your answer using the format CH4 for CH4.)
(a) 0.088 mol chlorine atoms combined with 0.22 mol oxygen atoms
[Cl2O5]
(b) 3.37 g silicon combined with 12.4 g chlorine
[SiCl3]
(c) 27.3 mass % carbon and 72.7 mass % oxygen
[CO2]



Silber4 3.037a.EOCP.
Give the empirical formula for the compound formed by:
0.063 mol of chlorine atoms combined with 0.22 mol of oxygen atoms



Silber4 3.037b.EOCP.
Give the empirical formula for the compound formed by:
2.45 g of silicon combined with 12.4 g of chlorine



Silber4 3.037c.EOCP.
Give the empirical formula for the compound formed by:
27.3 mass % carbon and 72.7 mass % oxygen



Silber4 3.038.AP.
Determine the empirical formula of each of the following compounds. (Type your answer using the format CH4 for CH4.)
(a) 0.039 mol iron atoms combined with 0.052 mol oxygen atoms
[Fe3O4]
(b) 0.903 g phosphorus combined with 6.99 g of bromine
[PBr3]
(c) a hydrocarbon with 79.9 mass % carbon
[CH3]



Silber4 3.038a.EOCP.
Give the empirical formula for the compound formed by:
0.039 mol of iron atoms combined with 0.052 mol of oxygen atoms



Silber4 3.038b.EOCP.
Give the empirical formula for the compound formed by:
0.903 g of phosphorus combined with 6.99 g of bromine



Silber4 3.038b.EOCP.
Give the empirical formula for the compound formed:
A hydrocarbon with 79.9 mass % carbon



Silber4 3.039a.EOCP.
An oxide of nitrogen contains 30.45 mass % N. What is the empirical formula of the oxide?



Silber4 3.039b.EOCP.
An oxide of nitrogen contains 30.45 mass % N. If the molar mass is 90 5 g/mol, what is the molecular formula?



Silber4 3.040.AP. ,
A chloride of silicon contains 79.1 mass % Cl. (Type your answer using the format CO2 for CO2.)
(a) What is the empirical formula of the chloride?
[SiCl3]
(b) If the molar mass is 269 g/mol, what is the molecular formula?
[Si2Cl6]



Silber4 3.040a.EOCP.
A chloride of silicon contains 79.1 mass % Cl. What is the empirical formula of the chloride?



Silber4 3.040b.EOCP.
A chloride of silicon contains 79.1 mass % Cl. If the molar mass is 269 g/mol, what is the molecular formula?



Silber4 3.041a.EOCP.
A sample of 0.600 mol of a metal M reacts completely with excess fluorine to form 46.8 g of MF2. How many moles of F are in the sample of MF2 that forms?



Silber4 3.041b.EOCP.
A sample of 0.600 mol of a metal M reacts completely with excess fluorine to form 46.8 g of MF2. How many grams of M are in this sample of MF2



Silber4 3.041c.EOCP.
A sample of 0.600 mol of a metal M reacts completely with excess fluorine to form 46.8 g of MF2. What element is represented by the symbol M?



Silber4 3.042.AP. ,
A sample of 0.370 mol of a metal oxide (M2O3) weighs 55.4 g.
(a) How many moles of O are in the sample?
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [1.11] mol
(b) How many grams of M are in the sample?
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [37.6] g
(c) What element is represented by the symbol M?
[vanadium -or- V]



Silber4 3.042a.EOCP.
A sample of 0.370 mol of a metal oxide (M2O3) weighs 55.4 g How many moles of O are in the sample?



Silber4 3.042b.EOCP.
A sample of 0.370 mol of a metal oxide (M2O3) weighs 55.4 g How many grams of M are in the sample?



Silber4 3.042c.EOCP.
A sample of 0.370 mol of a metal oxide (M2O3) weighs 55.4 g What element is represented by the symbol M?



Silber4 3.043.AP. ,
Nicotine is a poisonous, addictive compound found in tobacco. A sample of nicotine contains 6.16 mmol C, 8.56 mmol H, and 1.23 mmol N [1 mmol (one millimole) = 10-3 mol]. What is the empirical formula? (Type your answer using the format CH4 for CH4.)
[C5H7N]


Silber4 3.043.EOCP.
Nicotine is a poisonous, addictive compound found in tobacco. A sample of nicotine contains 6.16 mmol of C, 8.56 mmol of H, and 1.23 mmol of N [1 mmol (1 millimole) = 10-3 mol]. What is the empirical formula for nicotine?



Silber4 3.044.AP. ,
Cortisol ( = 362.47 g/mol), one of the major steroid hormones, is a key factor in the synthesis of protein. Its profound effect on the reduction of inflammation explains its use in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Cortisol is 69.6% C, 8.34% H, and 22.1% O by mass. What is its molecular formula? (Type your answer using the format CO2 for CO2.)
[C21H30O5]


Silber4 3.044.EOCP.
Cortisol (molar mass = 362.47 g/mol), one of the major steroid hormones, is a key factor in the synthesis of protein. Its profound effect on the reduction of inflammation explains its use in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Cortisol is 69.6% C, 8.34% H, and 22.1% O by mass. What is its molecular formula?



Silber4 3.045.AP. ,
Acetaminophen is one of the most popular nonaspirin, "over-the-counter" pain relievers. What is the mass % of each element in acetaminophen?

C
[63.6]%
H
[6.01]%
N
[9.27]%
O
[21.2]%


Silber4 3.045a.EOCP.
Acetaminophen (below) is one of the most popular nonaspirin, "over-the-counter" pain relievers.

What is the mass % of oxygen in acetaminophen?



Silber4 3.045b.EOCP.
Acetaminophen (below) is one of the most popular nonaspirin, "over-the-counter" pain relievers.

What is the mass % of nitrogen in acetaminophen?



Silber4 3.045c.EOCP.
Acetaminophen (below) is one of the most popular nonaspirin, "over-the-counter" pain relievers.

What is the mass % of carbon in acetaminophen?



Silber4 3.045d.EOCP.
Acetaminophen (below) is one of the most popular nonaspirin, "over-the-counter" pain relievers.

What is the mass % of hydrogen in acetaminophen?



Silber4 3.046.AP. ,
Menthol ( = 156.3 g/mol), a strong-smelling substance used in cough drops, is a compound of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. When 0.1595 g menthol was subjected to combustion analysis, it produced 0.449 g CO2 and 0.184 g H2O. What is its molecular formula? (Type your answer using the format CO2 for CO2.)
[C10H20O]


Silber4 3.046.EOCP.
Menthol (molar mass = 156.3 g/mol), a strong-smelling substance used in cough drops, is a compound of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. When 0.1595 g of menthol was subjected to combustion analysis, it produced 0.449 g of CO2 and 0.184 g of H2O. What is its molecular formula?



Silber4 3.047.AP.
What three types of information does a balanced chemical equation provide?
Key: The balanced reaction provides information on the amount and type of reactants and products.

How?
Key: The balanced reaction provides information in terms of molecules, mass and mass in grams.



Silber4 3.047.EOCP.
Which is not true about the types of information a balanced chemical equation provides?



Silber4 3.048.EOCP.
In a balanced chemical equation, the total mass of the reactants is equal to the total mass of the products formed in the reaction.



Silber4 3.049.EOCP.
The following boxes represent a chemical reaction between elements A (red) and B (green).

Which of the following best represents the balanced equation for the reaction?



Silber4 3.049.EOCP.
In the process of balancing the equation:
Al + Cl2 AlCl3
Student I writes: Al + Cl2 AlCl2
Student II writes: Al + Cl2 + Cl AlCl3
Student III writes: 2 Al + 3 Cl2 2 AlCl3

Which student has written the correct balanced chemical equation for the reaction?



Silber4 3.050.AP. ,
The following boxes represent a chemical reaction between elements A (red) and B (green): Which of the following best represents the balanced equation for the reaction?




Silber4 3.051.AP. ,
Write balanced equations for each of the following by inserting the correct coefficients in the blanks. (Use the lowest possible coefficients.)
(a) [16]Cu(s) + [1]S8(s) [8]Cu2S(s)
(b) [1]P4O10(s) + [6]H2O(l) [4]H3PO4(l)
(c) [1]B2O3(s) + [6]NaOH(aq) [2]Na3BO3(aq) + [3]H2O(l)
(d) [4]CH3NH2(g) + [9]O2(g) [4]CO2(g) + [10]H2O(g) + [2]N2(g)



Silber4 3.051a.EOCP.
Give the correct balanced equation for the reaction below.
Cu(s) + S8(s) Cu2S(s)



Silber4 3.051b.EOCP.
Give the correct balanced equation for the reaction below.
P4O10(s) + H2O(l) H3PO4(l)



Silber4 3.051c.EOCP.
Give the correct balanced equation for the reaction below.
B2O3(s) + NaOH(aq) Na3BO3(aq) + H2O(l)



Silber4 3.051d.EOCP.
Give the correct balanced equation for the reaction below.
CH3NH2(g) + O2(g) CO2(g) + H2O(g) + N2(g)



Silber4 3.052.AP. ,
Write (reduced) balanced equations for each of the following by inserting the correct coefficients in the blanks.
(a) [1]Cu(NO3)2(aq) + [2]KOH(aq) [1]Cu(OH)2(s) + [2]KNO3(aq)
(b) [1]BCl3(g) + [3]H2O(l) [1]H3BO3(s) + [3]HCl(g)
(c) [1]CaSiO3(s) + [6]HF(g) [1]SiF4(g) + [1]CaF2(s) + [3]H2O(l)
(d) [1](CN)2(g) + [4]H2O(l) [1]H2C2O4(aq) + [2]NH3(g)



Silber4 3.052a.EOCP.
Give the correct balanced equation for the reaction below.
Cu(NO3)2(aq) + KOH(aq) Cu(OH)2(s) + KNO3(aq)



Silber4 3.052b.EOCP.
Give the correct balanced equation for the reaction below.
BCl3(g) + H2O(l) H3BO3(s) + HCl(g)



Silber4 3.052c.EOCP.
Give the correct balanced equation for the reaction below.
CaSiO3(s) + HF(g) SiF4(g) + CaF2(s) + H2O(l)



Silber4 3.052d.EOCP.
Give the correct balanced equation for the reaction below.
(CN)2(g) + H2O(l) H2C2O4(aq) + NH3(g)



Silber4 3.053.AP. ,
Write balanced equations for each of the following by inserting the correct coefficients in the blanks. (Use the lowest possible coefficients.)
(a) [2]SO2(g) + [1]O2(g) [2]SO3(g)
(b) [1]Sc2O3(s) + [3]H2O(l) [2]Sc(OH)3(s)
(c) [1]H3PO4(aq) + [2]NaOH(aq) [1]Na2HPO4(aq) + [2]H2O(l)
(d) [1]C6H10O5(s) + [6]O2(g) [6]CO2(g) + [5]H2O(g)



Silber4 3.053a.EOCP.
Give the correct balanced equation for the reaction below.
SO2(g) + O2(g) SO3(g)



Silber4 3.053b.EOCP.
Give the correct balanced equation for the reaction below.
Sc2O3(s) + H2O(l) Sc(OH)3(s)



Silber4 3.053c.EOCP.
Give the correct balanced equation for the reaction below.
H3PO4(aq) + NaOH(aq) Na2HPO4(aq) + H2O(l)



Silber4 3.053d.EOCP.
Give the correct balanced equation for the reaction below.
C6H10O5(s) + O2(g) CO2(g) + H2O(g)



Silber4 3.054.AP. ,
Write (reduced) balanced equations for each of the following by inserting the correct coefficients in the blanks.
(a) [1]As4S6(s) + [9]O2(g) [1]As4O6(s) + [6]SO2(g)
(b) [2]Ca3(PO4)2(s) + [6]SiO2(s) + [10]C(s) [1]P4(g) + [6]CaSiO3(l) + [10]CO(g)
(c) [3]Fe(s) + [4]H2O(g) [1]Fe3O4(s) + [4]H2(g)
(d) [6]S2Cl2(l) + [16]NH3(g) [1]S4N4(s) + [1]S8(s) + [12]NH4Cl(s)



Silber4 3.054a.EOCP.
Give the correct balanced equation for the reaction below.
As4S6(s) + O2(g) As4O6(g) + SO2(g)



Silber4 3.054b.EOCP.
Give the correct balanced equation for the reaction below.
Ca3(PO4)2(s) + SiO2(s) + C(s) P4(g) + CaSiO3(l) + CO(g)



Silber4 3.054c.EOCP.
Give the correct balanced equation for the reaction below.
Fe(s) + H2O(g) Fe3O4(s) + H2(g)



Silber4 3.054d.EOCP.
Give the correct balanced equation for the reaction below.
S2Cl2(l) + NH3(g) S4N4(s) + S8(s) + NH4Cl(s)



Silber4 3.055.AP. ,
Convert the following into balanced equations. (Type your answer using the format CO2 for CO2. Use the lowest possible coefficients.)
(a) When gallium metal is heated in oxygen gas, it melts and forms solid gallium(III) oxide.
[4] [Ga](s) + [3] [O2](g) [2] [Ga2O3](s)
(b) Liquid hexane burns in oxygen gas to form carbon dioxide gas and water vapor.
[2] [C6H14](l) + [19] [O2](g) [12] [CO2](g) + [14] H2O(g)
(c) When solutions of calcium chloride and sodium phosphate are mixed, solid calcium phosphate forms and sodium chloride remains in solution.
[3] [CaCl2](g) + [2] [Na3PO4](aq) [1] [Ca3(PO4)2](s) + [6] [NaCl](aq)



Silber4 3.055a.EOCP.
Convert the following description into a balanced equation:
When gallium metal is heated in oxygen gas, it melts and forms solid gallium(III) oxide.



Silber4 3.055b.EOCP.
Convert the following description into a balanced equation:
Liquid hexane burns in oxygen gas to form carbon dioxide gas and water vapor.



Silber4 3.055c.EOCP.
Convert the following description into a balanced equation:
When solutions of calcium chloride and sodium phosphate are mixed, solid calcium phosphate forms and sodium chloride remains in solution.



Silber4 3.056.AP. ,
Convert the following into balanced equations. (Type your answer using the format CO2 for CO2. Use the lowest possible coefficients.)
(a) When lead(II) nitrate solution is added to potassium iodide solution, solid lead(II) iodide forms and potassium nitrate solution remains.
[1] [Pb(NO3)2](aq) + [2]KI(aq) [1] [PbI2](s) + [2] [KNO3](aq)
(b) Liquid disilicon hexachloride reacts with water to form solid silicon dioxide, hydrogen chloride gas, and hydrogen gas.
[1] [Si2Cl6](l) + [4]H2O(l) [2] [SiO2](s) + [6]HCl(g) + [1] [H2](g)
(c) When nitrogen dioxide is bubbled into water, a solution of nitric acid forms and gaseous nitrogen monoxide is released.
[3] [NO2](g) + [1] [H2O](l) [2] [HNO3](aq) + [1] [NO](g)



Silber4 3.056a.EOCP.
Convert the following description into a balanced equation:
When lead(II) nitrate solution is added to potassium iodide solution, solid lead(II) iodide forms and potassium nitrate solution remains.



Silber4 3.056b.EOCP.
Convert the following description into a balanced equation:
Liquid disilicon hexachloride reacts with water to form solid silicon dioxide, hydrogen chloride gas, and hydrogen gas.



Silber4 3.056c.EOCP.
Convert the following description into a balanced equation:
When nitrogen dioxide is bubbled into water, a solution of nitric acid forms and gaseous nitrogen monoxide is released.



Silber4 3.057.EOCP.
The phrase stoichiometrically equivalent molar ratio is the ratio of the subscripts in a balanced equation.



Silber4 3.058.EOCP.
The percent yield for a reaction will be the same whether it is calculated from mass quantities or from mole quantities.



Silber4 3.060.AP. ,
Percent yields are generally calculated from mass quantities. Would the result be the same if mole quantities were used instead?

Why? (Select all that apply.)




Silber4 3.061.AP.
Chlorine gas can be made in the laboratory by the reaction of hydrochloric acid and manganese (IV) oxide.

4 HCl(aq) + MnO2(s) MnCl2(aq) + 2 H2O(g) + Cl2(g)

Consider the reaction of 2.44 mol HCl with excess MnO2.
(a) How many moles of Cl2 form?
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [0.610] mol
(b) How many grams of Cl2 form?
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [43.2] g



Silber4 3.061a.EOCP.
Chlorine gas can be made in the laboratory by combining hydrochloric acid and manganese(IV) oxide according to the following reaction:
4 HCl(aq) + MnO2(s) MnCl2(aq) + 2 H2O(g) + Cl2(g)
When 1.82 mol of HCl reacts with excess MnO2, how many moles of Cl2 form?



Silber4 3.061b.EOCP.
Chlorine gas can be made in the laboratory by combining hydrochloric acid and manganese(IV) oxide according to the following reaction:
4 HCl(aq) + MnO2(s) MnCl2(aq) + 2 H2O(g) + Cl2(g)
When 1.82 mol of HCl reacts with excess MnO2, how many grams of Cl2 form?



Silber4 3.062.AP.
Bismuth oxide reacts with carbon to form bismuth metal.

Bi2O3(s) + 3 C(s) 2 Bi(s) + 3 CO(g)

(a) When 439 g Bi2O3 reacts with excess carbon, how many moles of Bi2O3 react?
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [0.942] mol
(b) How many moles of Bi form?
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [1.88] mol



Silber4 3.062a.EOCP.
Bismuth oxide reacts with carbon to form bismuth metal according to the following reaction:
Bi2O3(s) + 3 C(s) Bi(s) + 3 CO(g)
When 352 g of Bi2O3 reacts with excess carbon, how many moles of Bi2O3 react?



Silber4 3.062b.EOCP.
0.755 mole of bismuth oxide reacts with an excess of carbon to form bismuth metal according to the following reaction:
Bi2O3(s) + 3 C(s) 2 Bi(s) + 3 CO(g)
How many moles of Bi form?



Silber4 3.063.AP.
Potassium nitrate decomposes on heating, producing potassium oxide and gaseous nitrogen and oxygen.

4 KNO3(s) 2 K2O(s) + 2 N2(g) + 5 O2(g)

(a) How many moles of KNO3 must be heated to produce 93.0 kg oxygen?
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [2330] mol
(b) How many grams of KNO3 is this?
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [2.35e+05] g



Silber4 3.063a.EOCP.
Potassium nitrate decomposes on heating, producing potassium oxide and gaseous nitrogen and oxygen according to the following reaction:
4 KNO3(s) 2 K2O(s) + 2 N2(g) + 5 O2(g)
To produce 88.6 kg of oxygen, how many moles of KNO3 must be heated?



Silber4 3.063b.EOCP.
Potassium nitrate decomposes on heating, producing potassium oxide and gaseous nitrogen and oxygen according to the following reaction:
4 KNO3(s) 2 K2O(s) + 2 N2(g) + 5 O2(g)
How many grams of KNO3 must be heated to produce 88.6 kg of oxygen?



Silber4 3.064.AP.
Chromium(III) oxide reacts with hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas to form chromium(III) sulfide and water.

Cr2O3(s) + 3 H2S(g) Cr2S3(s) + 3 H2O(l)

(a) How many moles of Cr2O3 are required to produce 465 g of Cr2S3?
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [2.32] mol
(b) How many grams of Cr2O3 are required?
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [353] g



Silber4 3.064a.EOCP.
Chromium(III) oxide reacts with hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas to form chromium(III) sulfide and water according to the following reaction:
Cr2O3(s) + 3 H2S(g) Cr2S3(s) + 3 H2O(l)
To produce 421 g of Cr2S3, how many moles of Cr2O3 are required?



Silber4 3.064b.EOCP.
Chromium(III) oxide reacts with hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas to form chromium(III) sulfide and water according to the following reaction:
Cr2O3(s) + 3 H2S(g) Cr2S3(s) + 3 H2O(l)
How many grams of Cr2O3 are required to produce 421 g of Cr2S3?



Silber4 3.065.AP.
Calculate the mass of each product formed when 37.38 g diborane (B2H6) reacts with excess water.

B2H6(g) + H2O(l) H3BO3(s) + H2(g) [unbalanced]

H3BO3
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [167.1] g
H2
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [16.34] g


Silber4 3.065a.EOCP.
33.61 g of diborane (B2H6) reacts with excess water according to the following unbalanced equation:
B2H6(g) + H2O(l) H3BO3(s) + H2(g)
Calculate the mass of H3BO3 formed.



Silber4 3.065b.EOCP.
33.61 g of diborane (B2H6) reacts with excess water according to the following unbalanced equation:
B2H6(g) + H2O(l) H3BO3(s) + H2(g)
Calculate the mass of H2 formed.



Silber4 3.066.AP.
Calculate the mass of each product formed when 224 g of silver sulfide reacts with excess hydrochloric acid.

Ag2S(s) + HCl(aq) AgCl(s) + H2S(g) [unbalanced]

AgCl
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [259] g
H2S
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [30.8] g


Silber4 3.066a.EOCP.
174 g of silver sulfide reacts with excess hydrochloric acid according to the following unbalanced equation:
Ag2S(s) + HCl(aq) AgCl(s) + H2S(g)
Calculate the mass of AgCl formed.



Silber4 3.066b.EOCP.
174 g of silver sulfide reacts with excess hydrochloric acid according to the following unbalanced equation:
Ag2S(s) + HCl(aq) AgCl(s) + H2S(g)
Calculate the mass of H2S formed.



Silber4 3.067.AP.
Elemental phosphorus occurs as tetratomic molecules, P4. What mass of chlorine gas is needed for complete reaction with 396 g phosphorus to form phosphorus pentachloride?
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [2270] g


Silber4 3.067.EOCP.
Elemental phosphorus occurs as tetratomic molecules, P4. What mass of chlorine gas is needed for complete reaction with 355 g of phosphorus to form phosphorus pentachloride?



Silber4 3.068.AP.
Elemental sulfur occurs as octatomic molecules, S8. What mass of fluorine gas is needed for complete reaction with 26.5 g sulfur to form sulfur hexafluoride?
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [94.2] g


Silber4 3.068.EOCP.
Elemental sulfur occurs as octatomic molecules, S8. What mass of fluorine gas is needed for complete reaction with 17.8 g of sulfur to form sulfur hexafluoride?



Silber4 3.069a.EOCP.
Solid iodine trichloride is prepared by reaction between solid iodine and gaseous chlorine to form iodine monochloride crystals, followed by treatment with additional chlorine.

Give the overall balanced equation for the formation of iodine trichloride.



Silber4 3.069b.EOCP.
Solid iodine trichloride is prepared by reaction between solid iodine and gaseous chlorine to form iodine monochloride crystals, followed by treatment with additional chlorine. The overall balanced equation is shown below:
I2(s) + 3 Cl2(g) 2 ICl3(s)
How many grams of iodine are needed to prepare 31.4 kg of final product?



Silber4 3.070.AP.
Lead can be prepared from galena [lead(II) sulfide] by first roasting in oxygen gas to form lead(II) oxide and sulfur dioxide. Heating the metal oxide with more galena forms the molten metal and more sulfur dioxide. (Type your answer using the format CO2 for CO2. Use the lowest possible coefficients.)
(a) Write a balanced equation for each step.
[2] [PbS](s) + [3] [O2](g) [2] [PbO](s) + [2] [SO2](g)
[2] [PbO](s) + [1]PbS(s) [3] [Pb](l) + [1] [SO2](g)
(b) Write an overall balanced equation for the process.
[1] [PbS](s) + [1] [O2](g) [1] [Pb](l) + [1] [SO2](g)
(c) How many metric tons of sulfur dioxide form for every metric ton of lead obtained?
[0.309] metric tons



Silber4 3.070a.EOCP.
Lead can be prepared from galena [lead(II) sulfide] by first roasting the galena in oxygen gas to form lead(II) oxide and sulfur dioxide. Heating the metal oxide with more galena forms the molten metal and more sulfur dioxide.

Give an overall balanced equation for the process.



Silber4 3.070b.EOCP.
Lead can be prepared from galena [lead(II) sulfide] by first roasting the galena in oxygen gas to form lead(II) oxide and sulfur dioxide. Heating the metal oxide with more galena forms the molten metal and more sulfur dioxide.

How many metric tons of sulfur dioxide form for every metric ton of lead obtained?



Silber4 3.071a.EOCP.
Many metals react with oxygen gas to form the metal oxide. For example, calcium reacts as follows:
2 Ca(s) + O2(g) 2 CaO(s)
You wish to calculate the mass of calcium oxide that can be prepared from 4.20 g of Ca and 2.80 g of O2.

How many moles of CaO can be produced from the given mass of Ca?



Silber4 3.071b.EOCP.
Many metals react with oxygen gas to form the metal oxide. For example, calcium reacts as follows:
2 Ca(s) + O2(g) 2 CaO(s)
You wish to calculate the mass of calcium oxide that can be prepared from 4.20 g of Ca and 2.80 g of O2.

How many moles of CaO can be produced in this experiment from the given mass of O2?



Silber4 3.071c.EOCP.
Many metals react with oxygen gas to form the metal oxide. For example, calcium reacts as follows:
2 Ca(s) + O2(g) 2 CaO(s)
You wish to calculate the mass of calcium oxide that can be prepared from 4.20 g of Ca and 2.80 g of O2.

Which is the limiting reactant?



Silber4 3.071d.EOCP.
Many metals react with oxygen gas to form the metal oxide. For example, calcium reacts as follows:
2 Ca(s) + O2(g) 2 CaO(s)
You wish to calculate the mass of calcium oxide that can be prepared from 4.20 g of Ca and 2.80 g of O2.

How many grams of CaO can be produced?



Silber4 3.072.AP.
Metal hydrides react with water to form hydrogen gas and the metal hydroxide.

SrH2(s) + 2 H2O(l) Sr(OH)2(s) + 2 H2(g)

You wish to calculate the mass of hydrogen gas that can be prepared from 5.89 g of SrH2 and 4.67 g of H2O.
(a) How many moles of H2 can be produced from the given mass of SrH2?
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [0.131] mol
(b) How many moles of H2 can be produced from the given mass of H2O?
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [0.259] mol
(c) Which is the limiting reactant? (Type your answer using the format CO2 for CO2.)
[SrH2]
(d) How many grams of H2 can be produced?
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [0.265] g



Silber4 3.072a.EOCP.
Metal hydrides react with water to form hydrogen gas and the metal hydroxide. For example,
SrH2(s) + 2 H2O(l) Sr(OH)2(s) + 2 H2(g)
You wish to calculate the mass of hydrogen gas that can be prepared from 5.63 g of SrH2 and 4.80 g of H2O.

How many moles of H2 can be produced from the given mass of SrH2?



Silber4 3.072b.EOCP.
Metal hydrides react with water to form hydrogen gas and the metal hydroxide. For example,
SrH2(s) + 2 H2O(l) Sr(OH)2(s) + 2 H2(g)
You wish to calculate the mass of hydrogen gas that can be prepared from 5.63 g of SrH2 and 4.80 g of H2O.

How many moles of H2 can be produced in this experiment from the given mass of H2O?



Silber4 3.072c.EOCP.
Metal hydrides react with water to form hydrogen gas and the metal hydroxide. For example,
SrH2(s) + 2 H2O(l) Sr(OH)2(s) + 2 H2(g)
You wish to calculate the mass of hydrogen gas that can be prepared from 5.63 g of SrH2 and 4.80 g of H2O.

Which is the limiting reactant?



Silber4 3.072c.EOCP.
Metal hydrides react with water to form hydrogen gas and the metal hydroxide. For example,
SrH2(s) + 2 H2O(l) Sr(OH)2(s) + 2 H2(g)
You wish to calculate the mass of hydrogen gas that can be prepared from 5.63 g of SrH2 and 4.80 g of H2O.

How many grams of H2 can be produced?



Silber4 3.073a.EOCP.
685 g of iodine trichloride reacts with 117.4 g of water to form iodic acid (HIO3), according to the following unbalanced reaction:
ICl3 + H2O ICl + HIO3 + HCl
Calculate the maximum number of moles of HIO3 that can be produced from this reaction.



Silber4 3.073b.EOCP.
685 g of iodine trichloride reacts with 117.4 g of water to form iodic acid (HIO3), according to the following unbalanced reaction:
ICl3 + H2O ICl + HIO3 + HCl
Calculate the maximum number of grams of HIO3 that can be produced from this reaction.



Silber4 3.073c.EOCP.
685 g of iodine trichloride reacts with 117.4 g of water to form iodic acid (HIO3), according to the following unbalanced reaction:
ICl3 + H2O ICl + HIO3 + HCl
What mass of the excess reactant remains?



Silber4 3.074.AP.
Calculate the maximum number of moles and grams of H2S that can form when 176 g aluminum sulfide reacts with 122 g water.

Al2S3 + H2O Al(OH)3 + H2S [unbalanced]

WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [3.39] mol
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [115] g
What mass of the excess reactant remains?
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [7] g


Silber4 3.074a.EOCP.
158 g of aluminum sulfide reacts with 131 g of water according to the following unbalanced reaction:
Al2S3 + H2O Al(OH)3 + H2S
Calculate the maximum number of moles of H2S that can be produced from this reaction.



Silber4 3.074b.EOCP.
158 g of aluminum sulfide reacts with 131 g of water according to the following unbalanced reaction:
Al2S3 + H2O Al(OH)3 + H2S
Calculate the maximum number of grams of H2S that can be produced from this reaction.



Silber4 3.074c.EOCP.
158 g of aluminum sulfide reacts with 131 g of water according to the following unbalanced reaction:
Al2S3 + H2O Al(OH)3 + H2S
What mass of the excess reactant remains?



Silber4 3.075a.EOCP.
0.100 mol of carbon is burned in a closed vessel with 8.00 g of oxygen.

How many grams of carbon dioxide can be produced from this reaction?



Silber4 3.075b.EOCP.
0.100 mol of carbon is burned in a closed vessel with 8.00 g of oxygen.

Which reactant is in excess?



Silber4 3.075c.EOCP.
0.100 mol of carbon is burned in a closed vessel with 8.00 g of oxygen.

How many grams of excess reactant remain after the reaction?



Silber4 3.076a.EOCP.
A mixture of 0.0359 g of hydrogen and 0.0175 mol of oxygen in a closed container is sparked to initiate a reaction.

How many grams of water can form?



Silber4 3.076b.EOCP.
A mixture of 0.0359 g of hydrogen and 0.0175 mol of oxygen in a closed container is sparked to initiate a reaction.

Which reactant is in excess?



Silber4 3.076c.EOCP.
A mixture of 0.0359 g of hydrogen and 0.0175 mol of oxygen in a closed container is sparked to initiate a reaction.

How many grams of the excess reactant remain after the reaction?



Silber4 3.077a.EOCP.
62.5 g of aluminum nitrite and 54.6 g of ammonium chloride react completely to form aluminum chloride, nitrogen, and water.

Calculate the mass of aluminum nitrite present after the reaction is complete.



Silber4 3.077b.EOCP.
62.5 g of aluminum nitrite and 54.6 g of ammonium chloride react completely to form aluminum chloride, nitrogen, and water.

Calculate the mass of ammonium chloride present after the reaction is complete.



Silber4 3.077c.EOCP.
62.5 g of aluminum nitrite and 54.6 g of ammonium chloride react completely to form aluminum chloride, nitrogen, and water.

Calculate the mass of aluminum chloride present after the reaction is complete.



Silber4 3.077d.EOCP.
62.5 g of aluminum nitrite and 54.6 g of ammonium chloride react completely to form aluminum chloride, nitrogen, and water.

Calculate the mass of nitrogen present after the reaction is complete.



Silber4 3.077e.EOCP.
62.5 g of aluminum nitrite and 54.6 g of ammonium chloride react completely to form aluminum chloride, nitrogen, and water.

Calculate the mass of water present after the reaction is complete.



Silber4 3.078.AP.
Calcium nitrate and ammonium fluoride react to form calcium fluoride, dinitrogen monoxide, and water vapor. What mass of each substance is present after 16.8 g of calcium nitrate and 16.52 g of ammonium fluoride react completely?
Ca(NO3)2
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [0.00e+00] g
NH4F
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [8.94] g
CaF2
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [7.99] g
N2O
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [9.01] g
H2O
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [7.38] g



Silber4 3.078a.EOCP.
16.8 g of calcium nitrate and 17.50 g of ammonium fluoride react completely to form calcium fluoride, dinitrogen monoxide, and water vapor.

Calculate the mass of calcium nitrate present after the reaction is complete.



Silber4 3.078b.EOCP.
16.8 g of calcium nitrate and 17.50 g of ammonium fluoride react completely to form calcium fluoride, dinitrogen monoxide, and water vapor.

Calculate the mass of ammonium fluoride present after the reaction is complete.



Silber4 3.078c.EOCP.
16.8 g of calcium nitrate and 17.50 g of ammonium fluoride react completely to form calcium fluoride, dinitrogen monoxide, and water vapor.

Calculate the mass of calcium fluoride present after the reaction is complete.



Silber4 3.078d.EOCP.
16.8 g of calcium nitrate and 17.50 g of ammonium fluoride react completely to form calcium fluoride, dinitrogen monoxide, and water vapor.

Calculate the mass of dinitrogen monoxide present after the reaction is complete.



Silber4 3.078e.EOCP.
16.8 g of calcium nitrate and 17.50 g of ammonium fluoride react completely to form calcium fluoride, dinitrogen monoxide, and water vapor.

Calculate the mass of water vapor present after the reaction is complete.



Silber4 3.079.AP.
Two successive reactions, A B and B C, have yields of 77% and 53%, respectively. What is the overall percent yield for conversion of A to C?
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [41]%


Silber4 3.079.EOCP.
Two successive reactions, A B and B C, have yields of 82% and 65%, respectively. What is the overall percent yield for conversion of A to C?



Silber4 3.080.EOCP.
Two successive reactions, D E and E F, have yields of 48% and 73%, respectively. What is the overall percent yield for conversion of D to F?



Silber4 3.081.AP.
What is the percent yield of a reaction in which 41.6 g of tungsten (VI) oxide (WO3) reacts with excess hydrogen gas to produce metallic tungsten and 9.70 mL of water (d = 1.00 g/mL)?
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [1.00e+02]%


Silber4 3.081.EOCP.
What is the percent yield of a reaction in which 41.5 g of tungsten(VI) oxide (WO3) reacts with excess hydrogen gas to produce metallic tungsten and 9.50 mL of water (d = 1.00 g/mL)?



Silber4 3.082.EOCP.
What is the percent yield of a reaction in which 200. g of phosphorus trichloride reacts with excess water to form 128 g of HCl and aqueous phosphorous acid (H3PO3)?



Silber4 3.083.AP.
When 23.0 g methane and 47.2 g chlorine gas undergo a reaction that has an 80.0% yield, what mass of chloromethane (CH3Cl) forms? Hydrogen chloride also forms.
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [26.9] g


Silber4 3.083.EOCP.
When 18.5 g of methane and 43.0 g of chlorine gas undergo a reaction that has an 80.0% yield, what mass of chloromethane (CH3Cl) forms? (Note: Hydrogen chloride also forms.)



Silber4 3.084.EOCP.
When 56.6 g of calcium and 30.5 g of nitrogen gas undergo a reaction that has a 93.0% yield, what mass of calcium nitride forms?



Silber4 3.085.AP.
Cyanogen, (CN)2, has been observed in the atmosphere of Titan, Saturn's largest moon, and in the gases of interstellar nebulas. On Earth, it is used as a welding gas and a fumigant. In its reaction with fluorine gas, carbon tetrafluoride and nitrogen trifluoride gases are produced. What mass of carbon tetrafluoride forms when 70.9 g of each reactant is used?
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [46.9] g


Silber4 3.085.EOCP.
Cyanogen, (CN)2, has been observed in the atmosphere of Titan, Saturn's largest moon, and in the gases of interstellar nebulas. On Earth, it is used as a welding gas and a fumigant. In its reaction with fluorine gas, carbon tetrafluoride and nitrogen trifluoride gases are produced. What mass of carbon tetrafluoride forms when 80.0 g of each reactant is used?



Silber4 3.086.EOCP.
An intermediate step in the industrial production of nitric acid involves the reaction of ammonia with oxygen gas to form nitrogen monoxide and water. How many grams of nitrogen monoxide can form by the reaction of 466 g of ammonia with 812 g of oxygen?



Silber4 3.087a.EOCP.
Gaseous butane is compressed and used as a liquid fuel in disposable cigarette lighters and lightweight camping stoves. Suppose a lighter contains 6.50 mL of butane (d = 0.579 g/mL).

How many grams of oxygen are needed to burn the butane completely?



Silber4 3.087b.EOCP.
Gaseous butane is compressed and used as a liquid fuel in disposable cigarette lighters and lightweight camping stoves. Suppose a lighter contains 6.50 mL of butane (d = 0.579 g/mL).

How many moles of CO2 form when all the butane burns?



Silber4 3.087c.EOCP.
Gaseous butane is compressed and used as a liquid fuel in disposable cigarette lighters and lightweight camping stoves. Suppose a lighter contains 6.50 mL of butane (d = 0.579 g/mL).

How many total molecules of gas form when the butane burns completely?



Silber4 3.088.EOCP.
Sodium borohydride (NaBH4) can be prepared by reacting sodium hydride with gaseous diborane (B2H6). Assuming a 95.5% yield, how many grams of NaBH4 can be prepared by reacting 7.88 g of sodium hydride and 8.12 g of diborane?



Silber4 3.089.AP.
Box A represents a unit volume of a solution.

Choose from boxes B or C the one representing the same unit volume of solution that has each of the following.
(a) more solute added

(b) more solvent added

(c) lower molarity

(d) higher concentration



Silber4 3.089a.EOCP.
Box A represents a unit volume of a solution.

Box B represents the same unit volume of solution that has:



Silber4 3.089b.EOCP.
Box A represents a unit volume of a solution.

Box C represents the same unit volume of solution that has:



Silber4 3.091.AP.
Are the following instructions for diluting a 10.0 M solution to a 1.00 M solution correct: "Take 100.0 mL of the 10.0 M solution and add 900.0 mL water"?

Explain.
Key: Volumes are not additive. Take 100.00 mL of the 10.0 M solution and add sufficient water to make 1.00 L of solution.



Silber4 3.091.EOCP.
To dilute a 10.0 M solution to a 1.00 M solution, take 100.0 mL of the 10.0 M solution and add 900.0 mL water.



Silber4 3.092.AP.
Calculate each of the following quantities.
(a) grams of solute in 167.7 mL of 0.207 M calcium acetate
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [5.49] g
(b) molarity of 512 mL solution containing 21.1 g of potassium iodide
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [0.248] M
(c) moles of solute in 145.6 L of 0.743 M sodium cyanide
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [108] mol



Silber4 3.092a.EOCP.
Calculate the grams of solute in 175.8 mL of 0.207 M calcium acetate.



Silber4 3.092b.EOCP.
Calculate the molarity of 500. mL of solution containing 21.1 g of potassium iodide.



Silber4 3.092c.EOCP.
Calculate the moles of solute in 145.6 L of 0.850 M sodium cyanide.



Silber4 3.093.AP.
Calculate each of the following quantities.
(a) volume in liters of 1.71 M potassium hydroxide that contains 7.90 g of solute
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [0.0823] L
(b) number of Cu2+ ions in 65 L of 3.0 M copper(II) chloride
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [1.2e+26] ions
(c) molarity of a 296 mL of solution containing 100. mmol of glucose
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [0.338] M



Silber4 3.093a.EOCP.
Calculate the volume in liters of 2.26 M potassium hydroxide that contains 8.42 g of solute.



Silber4 3.093b.EOCP.
Calculate the number of Cu2+ ions in 52 L of 2.3 M copper(II) chloride.



Silber4 3.093c.EOCP.
Calculate the molarity of 275 mL of solution containing 135 mmol of glucose.



Silber4 3.094.AP.
Calculate each of the following quantities.
(a) grams of solute needed to make 427 mL of 5.62 10-2 M potassium sulfate
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [4.18] g
(b) molarity of a solution that contains 6.26 mg of calcium chloride in each milliliter
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [0.0564] M
(c) number of Mg2+ ions in each milliliter of 0.246 M magnesium bromide
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [1.48e+20] ions



Silber4 3.094a.EOCP.
Calculate the grams of solute needed to make 475 mL of 5.62 10-2 M potassium sulfate.



Silber4 3.094b.EOCP.
Calculate the molarity of a solution that contains 6.55 mg of calcium chloride in each milliliter.



Silber4 3.094c.EOCP.
Calculate the number of Mg2+ ions in each milliliter of 0.184 M magnesium bromide.



Silber4 3.095.AP.
Calculate each of the following quantities.
(a) molarity of the solution resulting from dissolving 34.4 g of silver nitrate in enough water to give a final volume of 326 mL
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [0.621] M
(b) volume in liters of 0.489 M manganese(II) sulfate that contains 55.0 g of solute
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [0.745] L
(c) volume in milliliters of 6.58 10-2 M adenosine triphosphate (ATP) that contains 1.41 mmol ATP
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [21.4] mL



Silber4 3.095a.EOCP.
Calculate the molarity of the solution resulting from dissolving 46.0 g of silver nitrate in enough water to give a final volume of 335 mL.



Silber4 3.095b.EOCP.
Calculate the volume in liters of 0.385 M manganese(II) sulfate that contains 57.0 g of solute.



Silber4 3.095c.EOCP.
Calculate the volume in milliliters of 6.44 10-2 M adenosine triphosphate (ATP) that contains 1.68 mmol of ATP.



Silber4 3.096.AP.
Calculate each of the following quantities.
(a) molarity of a solution prepared by diluting 30.44 mL of 0.288 M potassium chloride to 150.00 mL
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [0.0584] M
(b) molarity of a solution prepared by diluting 26.46 mL of 0.0626 M ammonium sulfate to 500.00 mL
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [0.00331] M
(c) molarity of sodium ion in a solution made by mixing 4.42 mL of 0.265 M sodium chloride with 500. mL of 6.51 10-3 M sodium sulfate (assume volumes are additive)
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [0.0152] M



Silber4 3.096a.EOCP.
Calculate the molarity of a solution prepared by diluting 37.00 mL of 0.250 M potassium chloride to 150.00 mL.



Silber4 3.096b.EOCP.
Calculate the molarity of a solution prepared by diluting 25.71 mL of 0.0706 M ammonium sulfate to 500.00 mL.



Silber4 3.096c.EOCP.
Calculate the molarity of sodium ion in a solution made by mixing 3.58 mL of 0.288 M sodium chloride with 500. mL of 6.51 10-3 M sodium sulfate (assume volumes are additive).



Silber4 3.097.AP.
Calculate each of the following quantities.
(a) volume of 1.549 M copper(II) nitrate that must be diluted with water to prepare 776.3 mL of a 0.8543 M solution
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [428.1] mL
(b) volume of 1.35 M calcium chloride that must be diluted with water to prepare 269 mL of a 2.78 10-2 M chloride ion solution
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [2.77] mL
(c) final volume of a 0.0633 M solution prepared by diluting 21.0 mL of 0.155 M lithium carbonate with water
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [51.4] mL



Silber4 3.097a.EOCP.
Calculate the volume of 2.050 M copper(II) nitrate that must be diluted with water to prepare 750.0 mL of a 0.8543 M solution.



Silber4 3.097b.EOCP.
Calculate the volume of 1.03 M calcium chloride that must be diluted with water to prepare 350. mL of a 2.66 10-2 M chloride ion solution.



Silber4 3.097c.EOCP.
Calculate the final volume of a 0.0700 M solution prepared by diluting 18.0 mL of 0.155 M lithium carbonate with water.



Silber4 3.098.AP. ,
A sample of concentrated nitric acid has a density of 1.41 g/mL and contains 70.0% HNO3 by mass.
(a) What mass of HNO3 is present per liter of solution?
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [2.77] g
(b) What is the molarity of the solution?
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [15.7] M



Silber4 3.098a.EOCP.
A sample of concentrated nitric acid has a density of 1.41 g/mL and contains 70.0% HNO3 by mass.

What mass of HNO3 is present per liter of solution?



Silber4 3.098b.EOCP.
A sample of concentrated nitric acid has a density of 1.41 g/mL and contains 70.0% HNO3 by mass.

What is the molarity of the HNO3 solution?



Silber4 3.099a.EOCP.
Concentrated sulfuric acid (18.3 M) has a density of 1.84 g/mL.

How many moles of sulfuric acid are present per milliliter of solution?



Silber4 3.099b.EOCP.
Concentrated sulfuric acid (18.3 M) has a density of 1.84 g/mL.

What is the mass % of H2SO4 in the solution?



Silber4 3.100.AP.
How many milliliters of 0.55 M HCl are needed to react with 6.9 g of CaCO3?

2 HCl(aq) + CaCO3(s) CaCl2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)

WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [250] mL


Silber4 3.100.EOCP.
How many milliliters of 0.383 M HCl are needed to react with 16.2 g of CaCO3 according to the following reaction?
2 HCl(aq) + CaCO3(s) CaCl2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)



Silber4 3.101.AP.
How many grams of NaH2PO4 are needed to react with 43.81 mL of 0.285 M NaOH?

NaH2PO4(s) + 2 NaOH(aq) Na3PO4(aq) + 2 H2O(l)

WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [0.749] g


Silber4 3.101.EOCP.
How many grams of NaH2PO4 are needed to react with 38.74 mL of 0.275 M NaOH according to the following reaction?
NaH2PO4(s) + 2 NaOH(aq) Na3PO4(aq) + 2 H2O(l)



Silber4 3.102.AP.
How many grams of solid barium sulfate form when 28.5 mL of 0.160 M barium chloride reacts with 63.5 mL of 0.055 M sodium sulfate? Aqueous sodium chloride is the other product.
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [0.82] g


Silber4 3.102.EOCP.
How many grams of solid barium sulfate form when 25.0 mL of 0.160 M barium chloride reacts with 68.0 mL of 0.055 M sodium sulfate? (Aqueous sodium chloride is the other product).



Silber4 3.103.EOCP.
How many moles of which reactant are in excess when 350.0 mL of 0.210 M sulfuric acid reacts with 0.500 L of 0.196 M sodium hydroxide to form water and aqueous sodium sulfate?



Silber4 3.104.EOCP.
Ordinary household bleach is an aqueous solution of sodium hypochlorite. What is the molarity of a bleach solution that contains 20.5 g of sodium hypochlorite in a total volume of 375 mL?



Silber4 3.105a.EOCP.
Muriatic acid, an industrial grade of concentrated HCl, is used to clean masonry and etch cement for painting. Its concentration is 11.7 M.

Calculate the volume in milliliters of muriatic acid needed to make 5.0 gallons of 3.5 M acid for routine use (1 gal = 4 qt; 1 qt = 0.946 L).



Silber4 3.105b.EOCP.
Muriatic acid, an industrial grade of concentrated HCl, is used to clean masonry and etch cement for painting. Its concentration is 11.7 M.

How many milliliters of the muriatic acid solution contain 9.55 g of HCl?



Silber4 3.106.AP.
A sample of impure magnesium was analyzed by allowing it to react with excess HCl solution, as shown below.

Mg(s) + 2 HCl(aq) MgCl2(aq) + H2(g)

After 1.69 g of the impure metal was treated with 0.100 L of 0.768 M HCl, 0.0125 mol HCl remained. Assuming the impurities do not react with the acid, what is the mass % Mg in the sample?
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [46.3]%


Silber4 3.106.EOCP.
A sample of impure magnesium was analyzed by allowing it to react with excess HCl solution according to the following reaction:
Mg(s) + 2 HCl(aq) MgCl2(aq) + H2(g)
After 1.32 g of the impure metal was treated with 0.100 L of 0.750 M HCl, 0.0125 mol of HCl remained. Assuming the impurities do not react with the acid, what is the mass % Mg in the sample?



Silber4 3.108.AP. ,
The study of sulfur-nitrogen compounds is an active area of chemical research, made more so by the discovery in the early 1980s of one such compound that conducts electricity like a metal. The first sulfur-nitrogen compound was prepared in 1835 and serves today as a reactant for preparing many of the others. Mass spectrometry of the compound shows a molar mass of 184.27 g/mol, and analysis shows it to contain 2.288 g of S for every 1.000 g of N. What is its molecular formula? (Type your answer using the format CO2 for CO2.)
[S4N4]


Silber4 3.108.EOCP.
The study of sulfur-nitrogen compounds is an active area of chemical research, made more so by the discovery in the early 1980s of one such compound that conducts electricity like a metal. The first sulfur-nitrogen compound was prepared in 1835 and serves today as a reactant for preparing many of the others. Mass spectrometry of the compound shows a molar mass of 184.27 g/mol, and analysis shows it to contain 2.288 g of S for every 1.000 g of N. What is its molecular formula?



Silber4 3.109.EOCP.
Narceine is a narcotic in opium. It crystallizes from water solution as a hydrate that contains 10.8 mass % water. If the molar mass of narceine hydrate is 499.52 g/mol, determine x in narceine xH2O.



Silber4 3.110.AP. ,
Hydrogen-containing fuels have a "fuel value" based on their mass % H. Rank the following compounds from highest mass % H to lowest: ethane, propane, benzene, ethanol, cetyl palmitate (whale oil, C32H64O2).

ethane [ 1 (lowest mass) ]
propane [ 2 ]
benzene [ 5 (highest mass) ]
ethanol [ 4 ]
cetyl palmitate [ 3 ]


Silber4 3.110.EOCP.
Hydrogen-containing fuels have a "fuel value" based on their mass % H. Which of the following compounds contains the highest mass % H?




Silber4 3.111.AP. ,
Serotonin ( = 176 g/mol) is a compound that conducts nerve impulses in brain and muscle. It contains 68.2 mass % C, 6.86 mass % H, 15.9 mass % N, and 9.08 mass % O. What is its molecular formula? (Type your answer using the format CH4 for CH4.)
[C10H12N2O]


Silber4 3.111.EOCP.
Serotonin (molar mass = 176 g/mol) is a compound that conducts nerve impulses in brain and muscle. It contains 68.2 mass % C, 6.86 mass % H, 15.9 mass % N, and 9.08 mass % O. What is its molecular formula?



Silber4 3.112.AP. ,
Convert the following descriptions of reactions into balanced equations. (Type your answer using the format CO2 for CO2. Use the lowest possible coefficients.)
(a) In a gaseous reaction, hydrogen sulfide burns in oxygen to form sulfur dioxide and water vapor.
[2] [H2S](g) + [3]O2(g) [2] [SO2](g) + [2]H2O(g)
(b) When crystalline potassium chlorate is heated to just above its melting point, it reacts to form two different crystalline compounds, potassium chloride and potassium perchlorate.
[4] [KClO3](s) [1]KCl(s) + [3] [KClO4](s)
(c) When hydrogen gas is passed over powdered iron(III) oxide, iron metal and water vapor form.
[3] [H2](g) + [1] [Fe2O3](s) [2] [Fe](s) + [3] [H2O](g)
(d) The combustion of gaseous ethane in air forms carbon dioxide and water vapor.
[2] [C2H6](g) + [7]O2(g) [4] [CO2](g) + [6]H2O(g)
(e) Iron(II) chloride can be converted to iron(III) fluoride by treatment with chlorine trifluoride gas. Chlorine gas is also formed.
[2] [FeCl2](s) + [2] [ClF3](g) [2] [FeF3](s) + [3] [Cl2](g)



Silber4 3.112a.EOCP.
Convert the following description of the reaction into a balanced equation.

In a gaseous reaction, hydrogen sulfide burns in oxygen to form sulfur dioxide and water vapor.



Silber4 3.112b.EOCP.
Convert the following description of the reaction into a balanced equation.

When crystalline potassium chlorate is heated to just above its melting point, it reacts to form two different crystalline compounds, potassium chloride and potassium perchlorate.



Silber4 3.112c.EOCP.
Convert the following description of the reaction into a balanced equation.

When hydrogen gas is passed over powdered iron(III) oxide, iron metal and water vapor form.



Silber4 3.112d.EOCP.
Convert the following description of the reaction into a balanced equation.

The combustion of gaseous ethane in air forms carbon dioxide and water vapor.



Silber4 3.112e.EOCP.
Convert the following description of the reaction into a balanced equation.

Iron(II) chloride can be converted to iron(III) fluoride by treatment with chlorine trifluoride gas. Chlorine gas is also formed.



Silber4 3.113.AP. ,
Isobutylene is a hydrocarbon used in the manufacture of synthetic rubber. When 0.847 g of isobutylene was analyzed by combustion (using an apparatus similar to that of Figure 3.5), the gain in mass of the CO2 absorber was 2.657 g and that of the H2O absorber was 1.089 g. What is the empirical formula of isobutylene? (Type your answer using format CH4 for CH4.)
[CH2]


Figure 3.5




Silber4 3.113.EOCP.
Isobutylene is a hydrocarbon used in the manufacture of synthetic rubber. When 0.847 g of isobutylene was analyzed by combustion (using an apparatus similar to that of Figure 3.4 in the text), the gain in mass of the CO2 absorber was 2.657 g and that of the H2O absorber was 1.089 g. What is the empirical formula of isobutylene?



Silber4 3.114.AP.
One of the compounds used to increase the octane rating of gasoline is toluene (below). Suppose 19.9 mL toluene (d = 0.867 g/mL) is consumed when a sample of gasoline burns in air.

(a) How many grams of oxygen are needed for complete combustion of the toluene?
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [53.9] g
(b) How many total moles of gaseous products form?
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [2.06] mol
(c) How many molecules of water vapor form?
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [4.51e+23] molecules



Silber4 3.114a.EOCP.
One of the compounds used to increase the octane rating of gasoline is toluene (below). Suppose 15.0 mL of toluene (d = 0.867 g/mL) is consumed when a sample of gasoline burns in air.

How many grams of oxygen are needed for complete combustion of the toluene?



Silber4 3.114b.EOCP.
One of the compounds used to increase the octane rating of gasoline is toluene (below). Suppose 15.0 mL of toluene (d = 0.867 g/mL) is consumed when a sample of gasoline burns in air.

How many total moles of gaseous products form?



Silber4 3.115.EOCP.
The smelting of ferric oxide to form elemental iron occurs at high temperatures in a blast furnace through a reaction sequence with carbon monoxide. In the first step, ferric oxide reacts with carbon monoxide to form Fe3O4. This substance reacts with more carbon monoxide to form iron(II) oxide, which reacts with still more carbon monoxide to form molten iron. Carbon dioxide is also produced in each step. Write an overall balanced equation for the iron-smelting process.



Silber4 3.116.AP.
During studies of the following reaction (i), a chemical engineer measured a less-than-expected yield of N2 and discovered that the following side reaction (ii) occurs.
(i) N2O4(l) + 2 N2H4(l) 3 N2(g) + 4 H2O(g)
(ii) 2 N2O4(l) + N2H4(l) 6 NO(g) + 2 H2O(g)
In one experiment 13.3 g of NO formed when 101.7 g of each reactant was used. What is the highest percent yield of N2 that can be expected?
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [86.6]%


Silber4 3.116.EOCP.
During studies of the reaction shown below:
N2O4(l) + 2 N2H4(l) 3 N2(g) + 4 H2O(g)
a chemical engineer measured a less-than-expected yield of N2 and discovered that the following side reaction occurs:
2 N2O4(l) + N2H4(l) 6 NO(g) + 2 H2O(g)
In one experiment, 10.0 g of NO formed when 100.0 g of each reactant was used. What is the highest percent yield of N2 that can be expected?



Silber4 3.117.EOCP.
A mathematical equation useful for dilution calculations is Mdil Vdil = Mconc Vconc. This equation works because the quantity of the solution remains the same.



Silber4 3.118.AP.
The following boxes represent a chemical reaction between AB2 and B2.

(a) Write a balanced equation for the reaction. (Type your answer using the format CO2 for CO2. Use the lowest possible coefficients.)
[2]AB2 + [1]B2 [2] [AB3]
(b) What is the limiting reactant in this reaction?
[AB2]
(c) How many moles of product can be made from 2.8 mol B2 and 5.6 mol AB2?
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [5.6] mol
(d) How many moles of excess reactant remain after the reaction in part (c)?
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [0] mol



Silber4 3.118a.EOCP.
The boxes below represent a chemical reaction between AB2 and B2.

Give the balanced equation for the reaction.



Silber4 3.118b.EOCP.
The boxes below represent a chemical reaction between AB2 and B2.

What is the limiting reactant in this reaction?



Silber4 3.118c.EOCP.
The boxes below represent a chemical reaction between AB2 and B2.

How many moles of AB3 can be made from 3.0 mol of B2 and 5.0 mol of AB2?



Silber4 3.119.AP.
Calculate each of the following quantities.
(a) volume of 16.4 M sulfuric acid that must be added to water to prepare 2.00 L f a 0.329 M solution
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [0.0401] L
(b) molarity of the solution obtained by diluting 81.5 mL of 0.250 M ammonium chloride to 0.250 L
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [0.0815] M
(c) volume of water added to 0.150 L of 0.0284 M sodium hydroxide to obtain a 0.0100 M solution (assume the volumes are additive at these low concentrations)
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [0.276] L
(d) mass of calcium nitrate in each milliliter of a solution prepared by diluting 52.6 mL of 0.772 M calcium nitrate to a final volume of 0.100 L
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [0.0666] g



Silber4 3.119a.EOCP.
Calculate the volume of 18.0 M sulfuric acid that must be added to water to prepare 2.00 L of a 0.309 M solution.



Silber4 3.119b.EOCP.
Calculate the molarity of the solution obtained by diluting 80.6 mL of 0.225 M ammonium chloride to 0.250 L.



Silber4 3.119c.EOCP.
Calculate the volume of water added to 0.150 L of 0.0262 M sodium hydroxide to obtain a 0.0100 M solution (assume the volumes are additive at these low concentrations).



Silber4 3.119d.EOCP.
Calculate the mass of calcium nitrate in each milliliter of a solution prepared by diluting 64.0 mL of 0.745 M calcium nitrate to a final volume of 0.100 L



Silber4 3.120.EOCP.
Agricultural biochemists use 6-benzylaminopurine (C12H11N5) in trace amounts as a plant growth regulator. In a typical application, 150. mL of a solution contains 0.030 mg of the compound. What is the molarity of the solution?



Silber4 3.121.AP.
One of Germany's largest chemical manufacturers is building a new plant to produce 3.60 108 lb vinyl acetate per year. This compound (below) is used to make some of the polymers in adhesives, paints, fabric coatings, floppy disks, plastic films, and so on. Assuming production goals are met, how many moles of vinyl acetate will the plant produce each month?
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [1.58e+08] mol




Silber4 3.121.EOCP.
One of Germany's largest chemical manufacturers has built a plant to produce 3.74 108 lb of vinyl acetate per year. This compound (below) is used to make some of the polymers in adhesives, paints, fabric coatings, floppy disks, plastic films, and so on.

Assuming production goals are met, how many moles of vinyl acetate will the plant produce each month?



Silber4 3.122a.EOCP.
Seawater is approximately 4.0% by mass dissolved ions. About 85% of the mass of the dissolved ions is from NaCl. Calculate the percent by mass of NaCl in seawater.



Silber4 3.122b.EOCP.
Seawater is approximately 4.0% by mass dissolved ions. About 85% of the mass of the dissolved ions is from NaCl. Calculate the percent by mass of Na+ ions in seawater.



Silber4 3.122c.EOCP.
Seawater is approximately 4.0% by mass dissolved ions. About 85% of the mass of the dissolved ions is from NaCl. Calculate the percent by mass of Cl- ions in seawater.



Silber4 3.122d.EOCP.
Seawater is approximately 4.0% by mass dissolved ions. About 85% of the mass of the dissolved ions is from NaCl. Calculate the molarity of NaCl in seawater at 15C. (d of seawater at 15C = 1.025g/mL)



Silber4 3.123a.EOCP.
A mole of one substance has the same number of atoms as a mole of any other substance.



Silber4 3.123b.EOCP.
The theoretical yield for a reaction is based on the balanced chemical equation.



Silber4 3.123c.EOCP.
To prepare 1.00 L of 3.00 M NaCl, weigh 175.5 g of NaCl and dissolve it in 1.00 L of distilled water.



Silber4 3.123d.EOCP.
The concentration of a solution is an intensive property, but the amount of solute in a solution is an extensive property.



Silber4 3.124a.EOCP.
Box A represents one unit volume of solution A.

Which box represents one unit volume after adding enough solvent to solution A to triple its volume?



Silber4 3.124b.EOCP.
Box A represents one unit volume of solution A.

Which box represents one unit volume after adding enough solvent to solution A to double its volume?



Silber4 3.124c.EOCP.
Box A represents one unit volume of solution A.

Which box represents one unit volume after adding enough solvent to solution A to quadruple its volume?



Silber4 3.125a.EOCP.
Choose the larger of the following quantities.
Number of entities: 0.4 mol of O3 molecules or 0.4 mol of O atoms



Silber4 3.125b.EOCP.
Choose the larger of the following quantities.
mass: 0.4 mol of O3 molecules or 0.4 mol of O atoms



Silber4 3.125c.EOCP.
Choose the larger of the following quantities.
number of moles: 4.0 g of N2O4 or 3.3 g of SO2



Silber4 3.125d.EOCP.
Choose the larger of the following quantities.
mass: 0.6 mol of C2H4 or 0.6 mol of F2



Silber4 3.125e.EOCP.
Choose the larger of the following quantities.
total number of ions: 2.3 mol of sodium chlorate or 2.2 mol of magnesium chloride



Silber4 3.125f.EOCP.
Choose the larger of the following quantities.
number of molecules: 1.0 g of H2O or 1.0 g of H2O2



Silber4 3.125g.EOCP.
Choose the larger of the following quantities.
number of Na+ ions: 0.500 L of 0.500 M NaBr or 0.0146 kg of NaCl



Silber4 3.125h.EOCP.
Choose the larger of the following quantities.
mass: 6.02 1023 atoms of 235U or 6.02 1023 atoms of 238U



Silber4 3.126.EOCP.
Balance the equation for the reaction between solid tetraphosphorus trisulfide and oxygen gas to form solid tetraphosphorus decaoxide and gaseous sulfur dioxide.



Silber4 3.127.AP.
Hydrogen gas has been suggested as a clean fuel because it produces only water vapor when it burns. If the reaction has a 98.8% yield, what mass of hydrogen forms 77.1 kg of water?
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [8.73] kg


Silber4 3.127.EOCP.
Hydrogen gas has been suggested as a clean fuel because it produces only water vapor when it burns. If the reaction has a 98.8% yield, what mass of hydrogen forms 85.0 kg of water?



Silber4 3.128.EOCP.
Assuming that the volumes are additive, what is the concentration of KBr in a solution prepared by mixing 0.200 L of 0.053 M KBr with 0.550 L of 0.078 M KBr?



Silber4 3.129a.EOCP.
Solar winds composed of free protons, electrons, and particles, bombard Earth constantly, knocking gas molecules out of the atmosphere. In this way, Earth loses 3.0 kg of matter per second. It is estimated that the atmosphere will be gone in about 50 billion years.

Use this estimate to calculate the mass (kg) of Earth's atmosphere.



Silber4 3.129b.EOCP.
Solar winds composed of free protons, electrons, and particles, bombard Earth constantly, knocking gas molecules out of the atmosphere. In this way, Earth loses 3.0 kg of matter per second. It is estimated that the atmosphere will be gone in about 50 billion years.

Use this estimate to calculate the amount (mol) of nitrogen, which makes up 75.5% of the atmosphere.



Silber4 3.130.AP.
Calculate each of the following quantities.
(a) moles of compound in 0.580 g ammonium bromide
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [0.00592] mol
(b) number of potassium ions in 59.9 g potassium nitrate
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [3.57e+23] ions
(c) mass in grams of 5.77 mol glycerol (C3H8O3)
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [531] g
(d) volume of 2.35 mol of glycerol (CHCl3; d=1.48 g/mL)
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [1.90e+02] mL
(e) number of sodium ions in 3.65 mol sodium carbonate
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [4.40e+24] ions
(f) number of atoms in 10.0 g of cadmium
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [5.36e+15] atoms
(g) number of atoms in 0.0015 mol fluorine gas
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [1.8e+21] atoms



Silber4 3.130a.EOCP.
Calculate the moles of compound in 0.588 g of ammonium bromide.



Silber4 3.130b.EOCP.
Calculate the number of potassium ions in 68.5 g of potassium nitrate.



Silber4 3.130c.EOCP.
Calculate the mass in grams of 5.85 mol of glycerol (C3H8O3).



Silber4 3.130d.EOCP.
Calculate the volume of 2.55 mol of chloroform (CHCl3; d = 1.48 g/mL).



Silber4 3.130e.EOCP.
Calculate the number of sodium ions in 2.11 mol of sodium carbonate.



Silber4 3.130f.EOCP.
Calculate the number of atoms in 10.0 g of cadmium.



Silber4 3.130g.EOCP.
Calculate the number of atoms in 0.0015 mol of fluorine gas.



Silber4 3.131.AP.
Elements X (green) and Y (purple) react according to the following equation.

X2 + 3 Y2 2 XY3

Which molecular scene represents the product of the reaction?
[ C ]



Silber4 3.131.EOCP.
Elements X (green) and Y (purple) react according to the following equation: X2 + 3 Y2 2 XY3.

Which molecular scene represents the product of the reaction?



Silber4 3.132.EOCP.
Hydrocarbon mixtures are used as fuels. How many grams of CO2(g) are produced by the combustion of 200. g of a mixture that is 25.0% CH4 and 75.0% C3H8 by mass?



Silber4 3.134.AP. ,
Nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) are the main nutrients in fertilizers. According to an industry convention, the numbers on the label refer to the mass percents of N, P2O5, and K2O, in that order. Calculate the N : P : K ratio of a 30 : 10 : 10 fertilizer in terms of moles of each element, and express it as x : y : 1.0.
[10] : [0.67] : 1.0


Silber4 3.134.EOCP.
Nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) are the main nutrients in plant fertilizers. According to an industry convention, the numbers on the label refer to the mass percents of N, P2O5, and K2O, in that order. Calculate the N:P:K ratio of a 30:10:10 fertilizer in terms of moles of each element, and express it as x:y:1.0.



Silber4 3.135.EOCP.
A 0.652 g sample of a pure strontium halide reacts with excess sulfuric acid, and the solid strontium sulfate formed is separated, dried, and found to weigh 0.755 g. What is the formula of the original halide?



Silber4 3.136.EOCP.
Methane and ethane are the two simplest hydrocarbons. What is the mass % C in a mixture that is 40.0% methane and 60.0% ethane by mass?



Silber4 3.137.EOCP.
When carbon-containing compounds are burned in a limited amount of air, some CO(g) as well as CO2(g) is produced. A gaseous product mixture is 35.0 mass % CO and 65.0 mass % CO2. What is the mass % C in the mixture?



Silber4 3.138.EOCP.
Ferrocene, first synthesized in 1951, was the first organic iron compound with direct Fe-C bonds. An understanding of ferrocene's structure gave rise to new ideas about chemical bonding and led to the preparation of many useful compounds. In the combustion analysis of ferrocene, which contains only Fe, C, and H, a 0.9437 g sample produced 2.233 g of CO2 and 0.457 g of H2O. What is the empirical formula of ferrocene?



Silber4 3.139.AP.
Citric acid (below) is concentrated in citrus fruits and plays a central metabolic role in nearly every animal and plant cell.
(a) What are the molar mass and formula of citric acid?
molar mass
[192] g/mol
formula (Type your answer using the format C6H11O6 for C6H11O6.)
[C6H8O7]
(b) How many moles of citric acid are in 2.35 qt of lemon juice (d = 1.09 g/mL) that is 5.78% citric acid by mass?
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [0.729] mol



Silber4 3.139b.EOCP.
Citric acid (below) is concentrated in citrus fruits and plays a central metabolic role in nearly every animal and plant cell.

How many moles of citric acid are in 1.50 qt of lemon juice (d = 1.09 g/mL) that is 6.82% citric acid by mass?



Silber4 3.140a.EOCP.
Various nitrogen oxides, as well as oxides of sulfur, contribute to acidic rainfall through complex reaction sequences. Atmospheric nitrogen and oxygen combine to form nitrogen monoxide gas, which reacts with more oxygen to form nitrogen dioxide gas. In contact with water vapor, nitrogen dioxide forms aqueous nitric acid and more nitrogen monoxide.

Give the overall balanced equation that does not include nitrogen monoxide and nitrogen dioxide.



Silber4 3.140b.EOCP.
Various nitrogen oxides, as well as oxides of sulfur, contribute to acidic rainfall through complex reaction sequences. Atmospheric nitrogen and oxygen combine to form nitrogen monoxide gas, which reacts with more oxygen to form nitrogen dioxide gas. In contact with water vapor, nitrogen dioxide forms aqueous nitric acid and more nitrogen monoxide.

How many metric tons (t) of nitric acid form when 1.25 103 t of atmospheric nitrogen is consumed (1 t = 1000 kg)?



Silber4 3.141a.EOCP.
Alum [KAl(SO4)2 xH2O] is used in food preparation, dye fixation and water purification. A 0.5404 g sample of alum is heated to drive off the waters of hydration. The resulting KAl(SO4)2 weighs 0.2941 g. The value of x in the formula of alum is:



Silber4 3.141b.EOCP.
Alum [KAl(SO4)2 12H2O] is used in food preparation, dye fixation and water purification. To prepare alum, aluminum is reacted with potassium hydroxide and the product with sulfuric acid. Upon cooling, alum crystallizes from the solution. When 0.7500 g of aluminum is used, 8.500 g of alum forms. The percent yield of this reaction is:



Silber4 3.142.AP. ,
When 1.5173 of an organic iron compound containing Fe, C, H, and O was burned in O2, 2.838 g of CO2 and 0.8122 g of H2O were produced. In a separate experiment to determine the mass % of iron, 0.3355 g of the compound yielded 0.0758 g of Fe2O3. What is the empirical formula of the compound? (Type your answer using the format CH4 for CH4.)
[C15H21O6Fe]


Silber4 3.142.EOCP.
When 1.5173 g of an organic iron compound containing Fe, C, H, and O was burned in O2, 2.838 g of CO2 and 0.8122 g of H2O were produced. In a separate experiment to determine the mass % of iron, 0.3355 g of the compound yielded 0.0758 g of Fe2O3. What is the empirical formula of the compound?



Silber4 3.143a.EOCP.
Fluorine is so reactive that it forms compounds with materials inert to other treatments. When 0.327 g of platinum is heated in fluorine, 0.519 g of a dark red, volatile solid forms. The empirical formula of this compound is:



Silber4 3.143b.EOCP.
Fluorine is so reactive that it forms compounds with materials inert to other treatments. When 0.265 g of the compound PtF6 reacts with excess xenon gas, 0.378 g of an orange-yellow solid forms. What is the empirical formula of this compound, the first noble gas compound formed?



Silber4 3.143b.EOCP.
Fluorides of the relatively unreactive noble gas xenon can be formed by direct reaction of the elements at high pressure and temperature. Depending on the temperature and the reactant amounts, the product mixture may include XeF2, XeF4, and XeF6. Under conditions that produce only XeF4 and XeF6, 1.85 10-4 mol of Xe reacted with 5.00 10-4 mol of F2, and 9.00 10-6 mol of Xe was found to be in excess.

What is the mass percent of XeF4 in the product?



Silber4 3.143c.EOCP.
Fluorides of the relatively unreactive noble gas xenon can be formed by direct reaction of the elements at high pressure and temperature. Depending on the temperature and the reactant amounts, the product mixture may include XeF2, XeF4, and XeF6. Under conditions that produce only XeF4 and XeF6, 1.85 10-4 mol of Xe reacted with 5.00 10-4 mol of F2, and 9.00 10-6 mol of Xe was found to be in excess.

What is the mass percent of XeF6 in the product?



Silber4 3.144.AP.
Hemoglobin is 6.0% heme (C34H32FeN4O4) by mass. To remove heme, hemoglobin is treated with acetic acid and NaCl to form hemin (C34H32N4O4FeCl). At a crime scene, a blood sample contains 0.52 g of hemoglobin.
(a) How many grams of heme are in the sample?
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [0.031] g
(b) How many moles of heme?
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [5.1e-05] mol
(c) How many grams of Fe?
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [0.0028] g
(d) How many grams of hemin could be formed for a forensic chemist to measure?
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [0.033] g



Silber4 3.144a.EOCP.
Hemoglobin is 6.0% heme (C34H32FeN4O4) by mass. To remove the heme, hemoglobin is treated with acetic acid and NaCl to form hemin (C34H32N4O4FeCl). At a crime scene, a blood sample contains 0.45 g of hemoglobin.

How many grams of heme are in the sample?



Silber4 3.144b.EOCP.
Hemoglobin is 6.0% heme (C34H32FeN4O4) by mass. To remove the heme, hemoglobin is treated with acetic acid and NaCl to form hemin (C34H32N4O4FeCl). At a crime scene, a blood sample contains 0.45 g of hemoglobin.

How many moles of heme are in the sample?



Silber4 3.144c.EOCP.
Hemoglobin is 6.0% heme (C34H32FeN4O4) by mass. To remove the heme, hemoglobin is treated with acetic acid and NaCl to form hemin (C34H32N4O4FeCl). At a crime scene, a blood sample contains 0.45 g of hemoglobin.

How many grams of Fe are in the sample?



Silber4 3.144c.EOCP.
Hemoglobin is 6.0% heme (C34H32FeN4O4) by mass. To remove the heme, hemoglobin is treated with acetic acid and NaCl to form hemin (C34H32N4O4FeCl). At a crime scene, a blood sample contains 0.45 g of hemoglobin.

How many grams of hemin could be formed for a forensic chemist to measure?



Silber4 3.145a.EOCP.
Manganese is a key component of extremely hard steel. The element occurs naturally in many oxides. A 542.3 g sample of a manganese oxide mixture has an Mn:O molar ratio of 1.00:1.42 and consists of braunite (Mn2O3) and manganosite (MnO).

What is the mass percent of braunite in the ore?



Silber4 3.145b.EOCP.
Manganese is a key component of extremely hard steel. The element occurs naturally in many oxides. A 542.3 g sample of a manganese oxide mixture has an Mn:O molar ratio of 1.00:1.42 and consists of braunite (Mn2O3) and manganosite (MnO).

What is the mass percent of manganosite in the ore?



Silber4 3.145c.EOCP.
Manganese is a key component of extremely hard steel. The element occurs naturally in many oxides. A 542.3 g sample of a manganese oxide mixture has an Mn:O molar ratio of 1.00:1.42 and consists of braunite (Mn2O3) and manganosite (MnO).

What is the molar ratio of Mn3+ to Mn2+ in the ore?



Silber4 3.146a.EOCP.
Sulfur dioxide gas can be produced by roasting iron pyrite (iron disulfide, FeS2) in oxygen, which yields the gas and solid iron(III) oxide. What mass of iron pyrite is used in the formation of 1.00 kg of sulfur dioxide?



Silber4 3.146b.EOCP.
Sulfur dioxide gas can be produced by roasting iron pyrite (iron disulfide, FeS2) in oxygen, which yields the gas and solid iron(III) oxide. What mass of oxygen is used in the formation of 1.00 kg of sulfur dioxide?



Silber4 3.146c.EOCP.
Sulfur dioxide gas can be produced by roasting iron pyrite (iron disulfide, FeS2) in oxygen, which yields the gas and solid iron(III) oxide. What mass of iron(III) oxide is produced in the formation of 1.00 kg of sulfur dioxide?



Silber4 3.147a.EOCP.
The human body excretes nitrogen in the form of urea, NH2CONH2. The key biochemical step in urea formation is the reaction of water with arginine to produce urea and ornithine:

What is the mass percent of nitrogen in urea?



Silber4 3.147b.EOCP.
The human body excretes nitrogen in the form of urea, NH2CONH2. The key biochemical step in urea formation is the reaction of water with arginine to produce urea and ornithine:

What is the mass percent of nitrogen in arginine?



Silber4 3.147c.EOCP.
The human body excretes nitrogen in the form of urea, NH2CONH2. The key biochemical step in urea formation is the reaction of water with arginine to produce urea and ornithine:

What is the mass percent of nitrogen in ornithine?



Silber4 3.147d.EOCP.
The human body excretes nitrogen in the form of urea, NH2CONH2. The key biochemical step in urea formation is the reaction of water with arginine to produce urea and ornithine:

How many grams of nitrogen can be excreted as urea when 143.2 g of ornithine is produced?



Silber4 3.148a.EOCP.
Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid, C9H8O4) can be made by reacting salicylic acid (C7H6O3) with acetic anhydride [(CH3CO)2O]:
C7H6O3(s) + (CH3CO)2O(l) C9H8O4(s) + CH3COOH(l)
In one reaction, 3.027 g of salicylic acid and 6.00 mL of acetic anhydride react to form 3.261 g of aspirin. Which is the limiting reactant? (d of acetic anhydride = 1.080 g/mL.)



Silber4 3.148b.EOCP.
Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid, C9H8O4) can be made by reacting salicylic acid (C7H6O3) with acetic anhydride [(CH3CO)2O]:
C7H6O3(s) + (CH3CO)2O(l) C9H8O4(s) + CH3COOH(l)
In one reaction, 3.027 g of salicylic acid and 6.00 mL of acetic anhydride react to form 3.261 g of aspirin. What is the percent yield of aspirin of this reaction?



Silber4 3.148c.EOCP.
Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid, C9H8O4) can be made by reacting salicylic acid (C7H6O3) with acetic anhydride [(CH3CO)2O]:
C7H6O3(s) + (CH3CO)2O(l) C9H8O4(s) + CH3COOH(l)
What is the percent atom economy of this reaction?



Silber4 3.149.EOCP.
The rocket fuel hydrazine (N2H4) is manufactured by the Raschig process, a three-step reaction with the following overall equation:
NaOCl(aq) + 2 NH3(aq) N2H4(aq) + NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)
What is the percent atom economy of this process?



Silber4 3.150.EOCP.
Lead(II) chromate (PbCrO4) is used as a yellow pigment to designate traffic lanes, but has been banned from house paint because of the potential for lead poisoning. The compound is produced from chromite (FeCr2O4), an ore of chromium, by the following reaction.
4 FeCr2O4(s) + 8 K2CO3(aq) + 7 O2(g) 2 Fe2O3(s) + 8 K2CrO4(aq) + 8 CO2(g)
Lead(II) ion then replaces K+ ions in a subsequent step. If a yellow paint is 0.511% PbCrO4 by mass, how many grams of chromite are needed per kilogram of paint?



Silber4 3.151a.EOCP.
Ethanol (CH3CH2OH), the intoxicant in alcoholic beverages, is also used as a precursor of many other organic compounds. In concentrated sulfuric acid, ethanol forms diethyl ether:
2 CH3CH2OH(l) CH3CH2OCH2CH3(l) + H2O(g)
In a side reaction, some ethanol forms ethylene:
CH3CH2OH(l) CH2=CH2(g) + H2O(g)
If 50.0 g of ethanol yields 33.9 g of diethyl ether, what is the percent yield of diethyl ether?



Silber4 3.151b.EOCP.
Ethanol (CH3CH2OH), the intoxicant in alcoholic beverages, is also used as a precursor of many other organic compounds. In concentrated sulfuric acid, ethanol forms diethyl ether:
2 CH3CH2OH(l) CH3CH2OCH2CH3(l) + H2O(g)
In a side reaction, some ethanol forms ethylene:
CH3CH2OH(l) CH2=CH2(g) + H2O(g)
50.0 g of ethanol yields 33.9 g of diethyl ether. During the process, 50.0% of the ethanol that did not produce diethyl ether reacts by the side reaction. What mass of ethylene is produced?



Silber4 3.152a.EOCP.
When powdered zinc is heated with sulfur, a violent reaction occurs, and zinc sulfide forms according to the unbalanced reaction:
Zn(s) + S8(s) ZnS(s)
Some of the reactants also combine with oxygen in air to form zinc oxide and sulfur dioxide. When 85.2 g of Zn reacts with 52.4 g of S8, 105.4 g of ZnS forms.

What is the percent yield of ZnS?



Silber4 3.152b.EOCP.
When powdered zinc is heated with sulfur, a violent reaction occurs, and zinc sulfide forms according to the unbalanced reaction:
Zn(s) + S8(s) ZnS(s)
Some of the reactants also combine with oxygen in air to form zinc oxide and sulfur dioxide. When 85.2 g of Zn reacts with 52.4 g of S8, 105.4 g of ZnS forms.

If all the remaining reactants combine with oxygen, how many grams of zinc oxide form?



Silber4 3.152c.EOCP.
When powdered zinc is heated with sulfur, a violent reaction occurs, and zinc sulfide forms according to the unbalanced reaction:
Zn(s) + S8(s) ZnS(s)
Some of the reactants also combine with oxygen in air to form zinc oxide and sulfur dioxide. When 85.2 g of Zn reacts with 52.4 g of S8, 105.4 g of ZnS forms.

If all the remaining reactants combine with oxygen, how many grams of sulfur dioxide form?



Silber4 3.153.EOCP.
Cocaine (C17H21O4N) is a natural substance found in coca leaves, which have been used for centuries as a local anesthetic and stimulant. Illegal cocaine arrives in the United States either as the pure compound or as the hydrochloride salt (C17H21O4NHCl). At 25C, the salt is very soluble in water (2.50 kg/L), but cocaine is much less so (1.70 g/L).

What is the maximum amount (in g) of the salt that can dissolve in 50.0 mL of water?



Silber4 3.154a.EOCP.
High temperature superconducting oxides hold great promise in the utility, transportation, and computer industries. One superconductor is La2-xSrxCuO4.

Calculate the molar mass of this oxide when x = 0.



Silber4 3.154b.EOCP.
High temperature superconducting oxides hold great promise in the utility, transportation, and computer industries. One superconductor is La2-xSrxCuO4.

Calculate the molar mass of this oxide when x = 1.



Silber4 3.154c.EOCP.
High temperature superconducting oxides hold great promise in the utility, transportation, and computer industries. One superconductor is La2-xSrxCuO4.

Calculate the molar mass of this oxide when x = 0.163 (this value characterizes the compound with optimum superconducting properties).



Silber4 3.154d.EOCP.
A common superconducting oxide is made by heating a mixture of barium carbonate, copper(II) oxide, and yttrium(III) oxide, followed by further heating in O2:
4 BaCO3(s) + 6 CuO(s) + Y2O3(s) 2 YBa2Cu3O6.5(s) + 4 CO2(g)
2 YBa2Cu3O6.5(s) + 1/2 O2(g) 2 YBa2Cu3O7(s)
When equal masses of the three reactants are heated, which reactant is limiting?



Silber4 3.155.EOCP.
The zirconium oxalate K2Zr(C2O4)3(H2C2O4) H2O, was synthesized by mixing 1.60 g of ZrOCl2 8 H2O with 5.20 g of H2C2O4 2 H2O and an excess of aqueous KOH. After 2 months, 1.20 g of crystalline product was obtained, as well as aqueous KCl and water. The percent yield of this reaction is:



Silber4 3.156.EOCP.
How many atoms are in 0.001 g of C?



Silber4 3.FP.01.
FOLLOW-UP PROBLEM 3.1 Calculating the Mass and Number of Atoms in a Given Number of Moles of an Element about this problem
(a) Graphite is the crystalline form of carbon used in lead pencils. How many moles of carbon are there in 335 mg of graphite?
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [0.0279] mol

(b) Manganese (Mn) is a transition element essential for the growth of bones. What is the mass in grams of 1.29 1021 Mn atoms, the number found in 4.00 kg of bone.
WebAssign will check your answer for the correct number of significant figures. [0.118] g
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Silber4 3.TB.001.
Calcium fluoride, CaF2, is a source of fluorine and is used to fluoridate drinking water. Calculate its molar mass.



Silber4 3.TB.002.
Calculate the molar mass of tetraphosphorus decaoxide, P4O10, a corrosive substance which can be used as a drying agent.



Silber4 3.TB.003.
Calculate the molar mass of rubidium carbonate, Rb2CO3.



Silber4 3.TB.004.
Calculate the molar mass of (NH4)3AsO4.



Silber4 3.TB.005.
Aluminum sulfate, Al2(SO4)3, is used in tanning leather, purifying water, and manufacture of antiperspirants. Calculate its molar mass.



Silber4 3.TB.006.
Which of the following chemical equations is NOT balanced?



Silber4 3.TB.006.
Calculate the molar mass of Ca(BO2)2 6 H2O.



Silber4 3.TB.007.
Magnesium fluoride is used in the ceramics and glass industry. What is the mass of 1.72 mol of magnesium fluoride?



Silber4 3.TB.008.
Sodium bromate is used in a mixture which dissolves gold from its ores. Calculate the mass in grams of 4.68 mol of sodium bromate.



Silber4 3.TB.009.
What is the mass in grams of 0.250 mol of the common antacid calcium carbonate?



Silber4 3.TB.010.
Calculate the number of moles in 17.8 g of the antacid magnesium hydroxide, Mg(OH)2.



Silber4 3.TB.011.
Phosphorus pentachloride, PCl5, a white solid that has a pungent, unpleasant odor, is used as a catalyst for certain organic reactions. Calculate the number of moles in 38.7 g of PCl5.



Silber4 3.TB.012.
Aluminum oxide, Al2O3, is used as a filler for paints and varnishes as well as in the manufacture of electrical insulators. Calculate the number of moles in 47.51 g of Al2O3.



Silber4 3.TB.013.
Calculate the number of oxygen atoms in 29.34 g of sodium sulfate, Na2SO4.



Silber4 3.TB.014.
Potassium dichromate, K2Cr2O7, is used in tanning leather, decorating porcelain and water proofing fabrics. Calculate the number of chromium atoms in 78.82 g of K2Cr2O7.



Silber4 3.TB.015.
Sulfur trioxide can react with atmospheric water vapor to form sulfuric acid that falls as acid rain. Calculate the mass in grams of 3.65 1020 molecules of SO3.



Silber4 3.TB.016.
Calculate the mass in grams of 8.35 1022 molecules of CBr4.



Silber4 3.TB.017.
What is the number of hydrogen atoms in 0.050 mol of C3H8O3?



Silber4 3.TB.018.
Copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate, CuSO4 5 H2O, is used as a fungicide and algicide. Calculate the mass of oxygen in 1.000 mol of CuSO4 5 H2O.



Silber4 3.TB.019.
Lead (II) nitrate is a poisonous substance which has been used in the manufacture of special explosives and as a sensitizer in photography. Calculate the mass of lead in 139 g of Pb(NO3)2.



Silber4 3.TB.020.
Household sugar, sucrose, has the molecular formula C12H22O11. What is the % of carbon in sucrose, by mass?



Silber4 3.TB.021.
Gadolinium oxide, a colorless powder which absorbs carbon dioxide from the air, contains 86.76 mass % Gd. Determine its empirical formula.



Silber4 3.TB.022.
Hydroxylamine nitrate contains 29.17 mass % N, 4.20 mass % H, and 66.63 mass % O. Determine its empirical formula.



Silber4 3.TB.023.
Hydroxylamine nitrate contains 29.17 mass % N, 4.20 mass % H, and 66.63 mass O. If its molar mass is between 94 and 98 g/mol, what is its molecular formula?



Silber4 3.TB.024.
A compound of bromine and fluorine is used to make UF6, which is an important chemical in processing and reprocessing of nuclear fuel. The compound contains 58.37 mass percent bromine. Determine its empirical formula.



Silber4 3.TB.025.
A compound containing chromium and silicon contains 73.52 mass percent chromium. Determine its empirical formula.



Silber4 3.TB.026.
Alkanes are compounds of carbon and hydrogen with the general formula CnH2n + 2. An alkane component of gasoline has a molar mass of between 125 and 130 g/mol. What is the value of n for this alkane?



Silber4 3.TB.027.
Terephthalic acid, used in the production of polyester fibers and films, is composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. When 0.6943 g of terephthalic acid was subjected to combustion analysis it produced 1.471 g CO2 and 0.226 g H2O. What is its empirical formula?



Silber4 3.TB.028.
Terephthalic acid, used in the production of polyester fibers and films, is composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. When 0.6943 g of terephthalic acid was subjected to combustion analysis it produced 1.471 g CO2 and 0.226 g H2O. If its molar mass is between 158 and 167 g/mol, what is its molecular formula?



Silber4 3.TB.029.
Hydroxylamine hydrochloride is a powerful reducing agent which is used as a polymerization catalyst. It contains 5.80 mass % H, 20.16 mass % N, 23.02 mass % O, and 51.02 mass % Cl. What is its empirical formula?



Silber4 3.TB.030.
In the combustion analysis of 0.1127 g of glucose (C6H12O6), what mass, in grams, of CO2 would be produced?



Silber4 3.TB.031.
Balance the following equation: B2O3(s) + HF(l) BF3(g) + H2O(l).



Silber4 3.TB.032.
Balance the following equation: UO2(s) + HF(l) UF4(s) + H2O(l).



Silber4 3.TB.033.
Balance the following equation for the combustion of benzene: C6H6(l) + O2(g) H2O(g) + CO2(g).



Silber4 3.TB.034.
Balance the following equation: C8H18O3(l) + O2(g) H2O(g) + CO2(g).



Silber4 3.TB.035.
Balance the following equation: Ca3(PO4)2(s) + SiO2(s) + C(s) CaSiO3(s) + CO(g) + P4(s).



Silber4 3.TB.036.
Sulfur dioxide reacts with chlorine to produce thionyl chloride (used as a drying agent for inorganic halides) and dichlorine oxide (used as a bleach for wood, pulp and textiles). SO2(g) + 2 Cl2(g) SOCl2(g) + Cl2O(g) If 0.400 mol of Cl2 reacts with excess SO2, how many moles of Cl2O are formed?



Silber4 3.TB.037.
Aluminum will react with bromine to form aluminum bromide (used as an acid catalyst in organic synthesis).

Al(s) + Br2(l) Al2Br6(s) [unbalanced]

How many moles of Al are needed to form 2.43 mol of Al2Br6?



Silber4 3.TB.038.
Ammonia will react with fluorine to produce dinitrogen tetrafluoride and hydrogen fluoride (used in production of aluminum, in uranium processing, and in frosting of light bulbs).

2 NH3(g) + 5 F2(g) N2F4(g) + 6 HF(g)

How many moles of NH3 are needed to react completely with 13.6 mol of F2?



Silber4 3.TB.039.
Ammonia, an important source of fixed nitrogen that can be metabolized by plants, is produced using the Haber process in which nitrogen and hydrogen combine.

N2(g) + 3 H2(g) 2 NH3(g)

How many grams of nitrogen are needed to produce 325 grams of ammonia?



Silber4 3.TB.040.
How many grams of sodium fluoride (used in water fluoridation and manufacture of insecticides) are needed to form 485 g of sulfur tetrafluoride?

3 SCl2(l) + 4 NaF(s) SF4(g) + S2Cl2(l) + 4 NaCl(s)




Silber4 3.TB.041.
How many grams of oxygen are needed to react completely with 200.0 g of ammonia, NH3?

4 NH3(g) + 5 O2(g) 4 NO(g) + 6 H2O(g)




Silber4 3.TB.042.
Phosphine, an extremely poisonous and highly reactive gas, will react with oxygen to form tetraphosphorus decaoxide and water.

PH3(g) + O2(g) P4O10(s) + H2O(g) [unbalanced]

Calculate the mass of P4O10(s) formed when 225 g of PH3 reacts with excess oxygen.



Silber4 3.TB.043.
Potassium chlorate (used in fireworks, flares and safety matches) forms oxygen and potassium chloride when heated.

KClO3(s) KCl(s) + O2(g) [unbalanced]

How many grams of oxygen are formed when 26.4 g of potassium chlorate is heated?



Silber4 3.TB.044.
Aluminum metal reacts with chlorine gas to form solid aluminum trichloride, AlCl3. What mass of chlorine gas is needed to react completely with 163 g of aluminum?



Silber4 3.TB.045.
Lead(II) sulfide was once used in glazing earthenware. It will also react with hydrogen peroxide to form lead(II) sulfate and water. How many grams of hydrogen peroxide are needed to react completely with 265 g of lead(II) sulfide?



Silber4 3.TB.046.
An important reaction sequence in the industrial production of nitric acid is the following.

N2(g) + 3 H2(g) 2 NH3(g)
4 NH3(g) + 5 O2(g) 4 NO(g) + 6 H2O(l)

Starting from 20.0 mol of nitrogen gas in the first reaction, how many moles of oxygen gas are required in the second one?



Silber4 3.TB.047.
In a blast furnace, elemental iron is produced from a mixture of coke (C), iron ore (Fe3O4) and other reactants. An important reaction sequence is given below.

2 C(s) + O2(g) 2 CO(g)
Fe3O4(s) + 4 CO(g) 3 Fe(l) + 4 CO2(g)

How many moles of iron can be formed in this sequence when 1.00 mol of carbon, as coke, is consumed?



Silber4 3.TB.048.
Aluminum oxide (used as an adsorbent or a catalyst for organic reactions) forms when aluminum reacts with oxygen.

4 Al(s) + 3 O2(g) 2 Al2O3(s)

A mixture of 82.49 g of aluminum ( = 26.98 g/mol) and 117.65 g of oxygen ( = 32.00 g/mol) is allowed to react. What mass of aluminum oxide ( = 101.96 g/mol) can be formed?



Silber4 3.TB.049.
Aluminum reacts with oxygen to produce aluminum oxide which can be used as an adsorbent, desiccant or catalyst for organic reactions.

4 Al(s) + 3 O2(g) 2 Al2O3(s)

A mixture of 82.49 g of aluminum ( = 26.98 g/mol) and 117.65 g of oxygen ( = 32.00 g/mol) is allowed to react. Identify the limiting reactant and determine the mass of the excess reactant present in the vessel when the reaction is complete.



Silber4 3.TB.050.
Magnesium reacts with iron(III) chloride to form magnesium chloride (which can be used in fireproofing wood and in disinfectants) and iron.

3 Mg(s) + 2 FeCl3(s) 3 MgCl2(s) + 2 Fe(s)

A mixture of 41.0 g of magnesium ( = 24.31 g/mol) and 175 g of iron(III) chloride ( = 162.2 g/mol) is allowed to react. What mass of magnesium chloride ( = 95.21 g/mol) is formed?



Silber4 3.TB.051.
Magnesium (used in the manufacture of light alloys) reacts with iron(III) chloride to form magnesium chloride and iron.

3 Mg(s) + 2 FeCl3(s) 3 MgCl2(s) + 2 Fe(s)

A mixture of 41.0 g of magnesium ( = 24.31 g/mol) and 175 g of iron(III) chloride ( = 162.2 g/mol) is allowed to react. Identify the limiting reactant and determine the mass of the excess reactant present in the vessel when the reaction is complete.



Silber4 3.TB.052.
Potassium chloride is used as a substitute for sodium chloride for individuals with high blood pressure. Identify the limiting reactant and determine the mass of the excess reactant remaining when 7.00 g of chlorine gas reacts with 5.00 g of potassium to form potassium chloride.



Silber4 3.TB.053.
Tetraphosphorus hexaoxide ( = 219.9 g/mol) is formed by the reaction of phosphorus with oxygen gas.

P4(s) + 3 O2(g) P4O6(s)

If a mixture of 75.3 g of phosphorus and 38.7 g of oxygen produce 43.3 g of P4O6, what is the percent yield for the reaction?



Silber4 3.TB.054.
What is the percent yield for the following reaction if 119.3 g of PCl5 ( = 208.2 g/mol) are formed when 61.3 g of Cl2 ( = 70.91 g/mol) react with excess PCl3?

PCl3(g) + Cl2(g) PCl5(g)




Silber4 3.TB.055.
Methanol (CH4O) is converted to bromomethane (CH3Br) as follows.

CH4O + HBr CH3Br + H2O

If 12.23 g of bromomethane are produced when 5.00 g of methanol is reacted with excess HBr, what is the percentage yield?



Silber4 3.TB.056.
A 0.150 M sodium chloride solution is referred to as a physiological saline solution because it has the same concentration of salts as normal human blood. Calculate the mass of solute needed to prepare 275.0 mL of a physiological saline solution.



Silber4 3.TB.057.
Sodium chlorate is used as an oxidizer in the manufacture of dyes, explosives and matches. Calculate the mass of solute needed to prepare 1.575 L of 0.00250 M NaClO3 ( = 106.45 g/mol).



Silber4 3.TB.058.
Lithium hydroxide is used in alkaline batteries. Calculate the molarity of a solution prepared by dissolving 1.495 moles of LiOH in enough water to give a final volume of 750. mL.



Silber4 3.TB.059.
Hydrochloric acid is widely used as a laboratory reagent, in refining ore for the production of tin and tantalum, and as a catalyst in organic reactions. Calculate the number of moles of HCl in 62.85 mL of 0.453 M hydrochloric acid.



Silber4 3.TB.060.
Sodium hydroxide, also known as caustic soda, is used to neutralize acids and to treat cellulose in making of cellophane. Calculate the number of moles of solute in 1.875 L of 1.356 M NaOH solution.



Silber4 3.TB.061.
Calculate the molarity of a 23.55 mL solution which contains 28.24 mg of sodium sulfate (used in dyeing and printing textiles, = 139.04 g/mol).



Silber4 3.TB.062.
When 2.61 g of solid Na2CO3 is dissolved in sufficient water to make 250 mL of solution, what is the concentration of Na2CO3?



Silber4 3.TB.063.
Calcium chloride is used to melt ice and snow on roads and sidewalks and to remove water from organic liquids. Calculate the molarity of a solution prepared by diluting 165 mL of 0.688 M calcium chloride to 925.0 mL.



Silber4 3.TB.064.
What will be the final volume of a solution prepared by diluting 25 mL of 8.25 M sodium hydroxide to a concentration of 2.40 M?



Silber4 3.TB.065.
What volume, in L, of 10.0 M HCl is needed to make 2.00 L of 2.00 M HCl solution by dilution with water?



Silber4 3.TB.066.
How many mL of concentrated nitric acid (HNO3, 16.0 M) should be diluted with water in order to make 2.00 L of 2.00 M solution?



Silber4 3.TB.067.
How many milliliters of 1.58 M HCl are needed to react completely with 23.2 g of NaHCO3 ( = 84.02 g/mol)?

HCl(aq) + NaHCO3(s) NaCl(s) + H2O(l) + CO2(g)




Silber4 3.TB.068.
Copper(II) sulfide, CuS, is used in the development of aniline black dye in textile printing. What is the maximum mass of CuS which can be formed when 38.0 mL of 0.500 M CuCl2 are mixed with 42.0 mL of 0.600 M (NH4)2S? Aqueous ammonium chloride is the other product.



Silber4 3.TB.069.
What mass of carbon is needed to react with 10.00 g of SnO2(s) according to the following chemical equation: SnO2(s) + 2 C(s) Sn(s) + 2 CO(g)?


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